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88.- What is a Pronoun 1.....

..See Def.
Why are Pronouns used?

.See Rem.
What is an Antecedent of a Pronoun?

.See Obs. 1
Antecedents may consist of what ?

.See Obs. 2
Why are Pronouns classified ? .

.See Rem.
How are Pronouns classified?

.See Prin.
What is a Personal Pronoun ?

.See Def. 89.—How are Personal Pronouns distinguished ?.

.See Obs.
How are Pronouns modified ?

.See Prin. Decline the Personal Pronoun. 90.-What Pronouns are varied in form to denote Gender ? .See Obs. 1.

For what are the principal variations made ? ... ..See
How do we distinguish the Persons of Pronouns? ...See
Why are Possessive Specifying Adjectives placed
with P:onouns ?

.See Obs. 2.
When are mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, and theirs
used as Substantives ? and why?...

.See Obs. 3. Make Sentences having each of these Words as

Subjectsas Objects—as Objects of Phrases—in

Eredicate with a Verb. What may be some of the different Antecedents of it?. See Obs. 4. 91.—What is a Relative Pronoun ?

.See Def.
Give the List of Relative Pronouns.
What is said of the words as and than? .

..See Obs. 2. Which of the Relative Pronouns are varied in form.See Obs. 3. 92.—What are the peculiar uses of who, which, and that? .See Obs. 4, 5, 6.

What is there peculiar in the use of the Word what? .See Obs. 7.
What other Double Relatives have we?...

.See Obs. 8.
What is an Interrogative Pronoun ?

.See Def.
Give the List of Interrogative Pronouns

.See Obs. 1. 93.-Sentences are made Interrogative-how ?

.See Obs. 2. What is the Antecedent of an Interrogative Pronoun?. See Obs. 3. An Interrogative Pronoun is to be construedhow ?-See Obs. 5. What is an Adjective Pronoun ļ ...

.See Def. 94.---What distinct offices are performed by Adjective Pronouns 8. See Ols. 2.

Why is the term Adjective Pronoun given to this class of
Words ......

See Obs. 3.
Give the List of Words most frequently used as Adjec-
tive Pronoung

.See Obs. 4.


REM.—As things possess individuality, and have points of differenco from each other, so we have Words which point out and describe those things, and mark their differences from other things. Hence,

DEF. 86.-An Adjective is a Word used to qualify or otherwise describe a Noun or a Pronoun.

EXAMPLES.—Good-amiable—the-our-earnest-falling – young-
A good boy.

Falling leaves.
An amiable young lady.

Conscientious Christian.
Our national resources.

Correct expression.
An earnest culture.

Famous orators.
A loving sister.

Injured fruit.


Rem.—Adjectives are used

1. To express a quality-as, good boy-red rose-sweet apple.
2. To specify or limit—as, the book—thy pen-three boys.
3. To express, incidentally, a condition, state, or actmas, loving

--wheeling-injured. Hence,
PRIN.—Adjectives are distinguished as

Qualifying Adjectives,
Specifying Adjectives, and
Verbal Adjectives.


DEF. 87.-A Qualifying Adjective is a Word used to
describe a Substantive by. expressing a quality.
EXAMPLES. -Good-sweet-cold-honorable--amiable-virtuous.
An honorable man.

Some good fruit.
An amiable disposition.

Three sweet oranges.
A virtuous woman.

Much cold water.

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DEF. 88.-A Specifying Adjective is a Word used to define or limit the application of a Substantive without denoting a quality. EXAMPLES.—1—an-the-this-that-some-three-my. A man of letters.

That mountain in the distance.
An educated man.

Some good fruit.
The question at issue.

Three sweet oranges.
This road.

My enemy.

Obs. 1 –Adjectives derived from Proper Nouns are called Proper Adjectives.


Obs. 2.- Which, what, and sometimes whose, when used as Adjectives, are called Interrogative Adjectives when they indicate a estion EXAMPLES.--1. Which side will you take i

2. What evil hath he done!

3. Whose book is that? REM.— Adjectives may specify

1. By simply pointing out things--by limiting or designating. 2. By denoting relation of ownership, adaptation, or origin.

3. By denoting number, definite or indefinite. Hence, PRIN.-Specifying Adjectives are distinguished as Pure, Numeral, and Possessive.

DEF. 89.-A Pure Adjective is a Word used only to point out or designate things.


Thou art the man.
That question is settled.
Those books are received.
Such shames are common.”

The next class.
The same lesson.
Other cares intrude.
Any man may

learn wisdom.

DEF. 90.--A Possessive Adjective is a Word that de. scribes a being or thing by indicating a relation of ownership, origin, fitness, &c.

EXAMPLES. —My-our-their-whose-children's—John's—Teacher's.
My father--my neighbor.

Children's shoes.
Our enemies.

John's horse.
Their losses are severe.

Teacher's absence.
“O my offense is rank: it smells to heaven;

It hath the primal, eldest curse upon it,

A brother's murder." "He heard the king's command, and saw that writing,s truth NOTE.— A Possessive Adjective is generally derived from a substan tive, by changing the Nominative into the Possessive form.


DEF. 91.—A Numeral Adjective is a Word used tu denote Number.


Obs. 1.–Numeral Adjectives may be,

Cardinal. One-two-three-four.

Indefinite.-Few-many-some (denoting number).
OBS. 2.-A and an, when they denote number, are to be classed as
Numeral Adjectives.

EXAMPLES. — “Not a drum was heard, nor a funeral note.”

“Not an instance is on record.”


DEF. 92.-A Verbal Adjective is a Word used to describe a Noun or a Pronoun, by expressing, incidentally, a condition, state, or act.

Obs.—This class of Adjectives consists of Participles, used primarily lo describe Nouns aud Pronoun.


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A running brook.

I saw a boy running to school A standing pond.

Another standing by the way.
Disputed territory.

It is a truth undisputed.
Undoubted fact.

It is a fact undoubted.
Scaling yonder peak,

I saw an eagle wheeling near its brow.” In this example the Sentowe is, “I saw eagle :" and "scaling yonder peak,” is a Phrase used to describe “I.” “Wheeling near its brow," describes “ eagle.” Scaling and wheeling are Participles used to describe a Noun and a Pronoun-hence they are, in their office, Adjectives. (See Def. 86.) They describe by expressing (not in the character of Predicates, but), “incidentally, a condition, state, or act,” of “I” and “ eagle"-hence they are Verbal Adjectives.


REM. 1.—To render the classification more simple, I have preferred to class all Participles used chiefly to describe Nouns and Pronouns, as Adjectives-and, because they are derived from Verbs and retain more or less of the properties of the Verbs from which they are derived, I use the term Vorbal Adjectives.

But Teachers who are unwilling to do more than simply to call them Participles, will not find it difficult to adapt their views to the plan of this work; the Pupil being taught that,

Participles, like Adjectives, belong to uns and Pronouns." And, in the use of Diagrams, Participles used to limit Substantives, occupy the same position

as Adjectives."

REM. 2. — Participles used as Adjectives, commonly retain their verbal character, and like their Verbs, may have Objects after them. Hence,

PRIN.–Verbal Adjectives are distinguished as Transi tive and Intransitive.


Intransitive.—“He possessed a well-balanced mind."

“Truth, crushed to earth, will rise again." Transitive. —" Scaling yonder peak, I saw an eagle."

“We saw the children picking berrics"

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