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Ous. 9.- EXCEPTION.-Nouns and Pronouns of the Possessive form are sometimes used Substantively; but, when thus used, they are in the Nominative, in the Objective, or in the Independent Case.



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Nominative.—My book is new; John's is old.

Mine is little used; yours is soiled. “Mine” is the Subject of the Sentence; hence in the Nominative Case.

Objective.John is a friend of mine. “Mine” is the Object of the Preposition “of; hence in the Objective Case.

Note.--It is a mistaken notion of certain grammarians, that “mine," in the above example, is equivalent to “my friend,” and must therefore he “in the Possessive Case, and governed by friend understood.”

John is a friend of mine ; i. e., he is friendly to me.
John is my enemy; but he is a friend of my friend.

Is mine” equivalent to “my friend"? How the notion vanisher before the test.

Independent.—The book is mine; it was yours. “Mine" is used in Predicate with “is”; hence in the Independent Case.






69.- What are the principal subjects discussed in Part I. !.See Rem. 1.

What is Pro.cimate Analysis of Sentences!..... .See Rem. 2.
What is Ultimate Analysis ? ...
What is the province of Part II. ?

.See Rem. 3. The Science of Language embraces what divisions : 70.-In how many ways are Words distinguished ?.. .See Prin.

By their forms, how are Words distinguished !.
What is a Radical Word?

'.See Def. 52. What is a Derivative Word ?

.See Def. 53. What is a Simple Word? .

.See Def. 54. What is a Compound Word? .

.See Def. 55. 71.-The Elements of a Compound Word are called what!.See Prin. What is the Basis of a Compound Word!

.See Def. 56. What is an Adjunct of a Compound Word ? ..See Def. 57. What is a Prefix ? What is a Suffix ?,.

.See Dei. 58-9 72.-- What is a Separable Radical ?

See Def. 60. What is an Inseparable Radical?.

.See Def. 61

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73.-By their uses, how are Words distinguished!. ..See Prin
What is a Noun ?...

.See Def. €2.
What are their classes ?

..See Prin,
What is a Proper Noun? Give Examples.

.See Def. 63. 14.--What is a Common Noun ? Give Examples. .See Def. 64.

What is an Abstract Noun ? Give Examples.... ..See Def. 65.
What is a Collective Noun & Give Examples.

.See Def. 66.
What is a Verbal Noun? Give Examples.

.See Def. 67. What are the several offices of Nouns? .

.See Obs. 3. 75.- What other Words perform Substantive offices ? Give Examples.

.See Obs. 6. 76.--How are Nouns modified ? .

.See Prin. What Nouns and Pronouns are of the Masculine Gender ? .See Def. 69 What of the Feminine Gender ?-of the Neuter Gender! See Def. 70-1 Are all Nouns modified by Gender?....

.See Obs. 1-4 77.-How are the distinctions of Gender indicated!. .See Prin. 78.-What occasions the modifications of Person?.. .See Rem.

What Nouns and Pronouns are of the First Person?..See Def. 72.
What of the Second Person? Give Examples. .See Def. 73.
What of the Third Person? Give Examples. .See Def. 74.
What are the Modifications of Number?

.See Prin.
What Nouns are of the Singular Number ? Give Exs.. See Def. 75.
What Nouns are of the Plural Number? Give Exs. .See Def. 76.
How are Numbers indicated ?....

.See Obs. 1. 79.- What Nouns add es to form the Plural?

.See Obs. 2. 80.—How are the Plurals of Compound Nouns formed !..See Obs. 7, 8, 9. 81.—What is said of the Plural forms of Foreign Nouns ?.See Obs. 15. Repeat the Exercises in Gender, Person, and Number,

after the Models given. 82.- What does the term Case indicate?..

.See Rem. 2. How many Cases in English Grammar?.

.See Prin. 83.-.When is a Noun or a Pronoun in the Nominative Case ?.See Def. When

Possessive Case ?..See Def. How is the Possessive Case formed?..

..See Obs. 1, 2, 3 &t.-The term Possessive Case indicates what!. .See Obs. 4, 5. What office is commonly performed by the Possessive Form of Words!....

. See Obs. 6. When do Words, commonly used as Nours and Pronouns, become Adjuncts ?

..See Obs. 7 When is a Noun ir a Pronoun in the Objective Case ?..See Def.


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84.-When is a Noun or a Pronoun in the Independent Case? .See Def. 79 85.-- What is said of the variations of Nouns to denote Cases. . See Obs. 7. 86.—When are Nouns of the Possessive form used Substantively? . See Obs. 9

PRONOUNS. REM.—To avoid an unpleasant repetition of the same Word in a Sentence, a class of Words is introduced as Substitutes for Names. Hence,

DEF. 81.-A Pronoun is a Word used instead of a Noun.

Obs. 1.-As Pronouns are of general application, the Noun for which any given Pronoun is substituted is commonly determined by the context-and, because it generally precedes the Pronoun, it is called its Antecedent.

Obs. 2.—The Antecedent of a Pronoun may be a Word, a Phrase, or a Sentence.


1. A Word.—James has injured HIMSELF; HE has studied too much."

2. A Phrase.—“William's abandoning a good sitration in hopes of a better, was never approved by me. It has been the prime cause of all his troubles."

3. A Sentence.—“I am glad that Charles has secured a liberal education It is what few poor boys have the perseverance to accomplish.”


REM.-Some Pronouns, by their forms, denote their modification of Gender, Person, Number, and Case.

Others relate directly to the Nouns for which they are used.
Others, in addition to their ordinary office, are used in asking questions.
Others describe the Names for which they are substituted. Hence,
PRIN.-Pronouns are distinguished as

Interrogative, and


PERSONAL PRONOUN. DEF. 82.--A Personal Pronoun is a Pronjun whose jorm determines its Person and Number,

OBS.—The Personal Pronouns are Simple or Compouna


Simple.—I, thou, you, he, she, it.
Compound.Myself, thyself, yourself, himself, herself, itself.

MODIFICATION. REM.—Whenever one Word is used in the place of another, it is properly subjected to the same laws as the other: this is true of Pronouns. Hence,

PRIN.--Pronouns have the same modifications of Gender, Person, Number, and Case, as Nouns.

REM.—To denote these several modifications, some Pronouns are varied in form. This variation of form is called Declension.


Nominative. Possessive, Objective. Independent.



I or me.*



we or us.



thou or thee. ye or you.

Singular.—You, your,

you, Plural.—You, your,

you, SECOND PERSON.-Solemn Style. Singular.--Thou, thy

thee, Plural.-Ye,


you, THIRD PERSON.-Masculine. Singular.--He,


him, Plural.—They




Plural.—They, their, them,



it, Plural.— They, their, them,

he or him. they or them.

she or her. they or them.

they or them.

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* Pronouns in the Independent Case commonly take the form of the Nominative, as, O happy they !—“Ah, luckless he !"_“It is I !" But they sometimes take the form of the Objective, as, Him excepted.”* I found it to be hiin.”-“Ah me!"

OBS. 1.–From the above Paradigm, notice, 1. That Pronouns of the Third Person Singular only are varied to

denote the sex. 2. That the Pronoun you is not varied to denote the Number.

This is a modern innovation; but the idiom is too well

established to yield to criticism or protesto 3. That the principal variations are made to distinguish the Casee.

4. That, to distinguish the Persons, different words are employed. Obs. 2.—Mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, and theirs, are commonly used “to specify or otherwise describe Nouns and Pronouns”; and when thus used, they are therefore Adjectives. They are placed here to denote their origin, and to accommodate such teachers as, by force of habit, are inclined to call them Pronouns in all conditions. (See Possessive Speci. fying Adjectives, p. 98.)

OBs. 3.–Mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, and theirs, are sometimes used Substantively, i. e., as the Subjects or the Objects of a Sentence the Objects of Phrases, or as Independent Substantives; and when thus used, they are therefore Substantives. (See “ Adjective Pronouns.")



Subject of a Sentence.—“My sword and yours are kin.”—Shakspeare. Object of a Sentence.—" You seek your interests; we follow ours.” Object of a Phrase.—“Therefore leave your forest of beasts for ours

of brutes, called men.”— Wesley to Pope.

“John is a friend of mine." Independent.- -Thine is the kingdom.”

“Theirs had been the vigor of their youth." OBs. 4.-The Pronoun it is often used indefinitely, and may have on Antecedent of the First, the Second, or the Third Person, of the Singuiar or the Plural number; and sometimes it has no antecedent. EXAMPLES." It is I.It was me. “ Was it thou ?” — Is it you.

It was John.Was it the boys ?

It snows. It blows. It seems. OBS. 5. - That for which a Pronoun is used may also be a Phrase or Sentence.


A Phrase.-1. “It is good to be zealously affected in a good thing." A Sentence.-2. “It remains that we sveak of its moral effects.”

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