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Obs. 13.-Some Nouns, having a Singular form, are used in a Plural


EXAMPLES. — Horse — foot — cavalry - cannon - sail. One thousand horse and two thousand foot--five hundred cavalry-fifty cannon-twenty sail of the line—and, for supplies, five hundred head of cattle.

Obs. 14.-Sonne Nouns, having no Plural form to indicate Number, receive a Plural Termination to indicate different Species.

EXAMPLES.—Wines.—“Most wines contain over twenty per cent. of alcohol.”. Tea.—“The teas of the Nankin Company are all good.”

Obs. 15.—Many Latin, Greek, and Hebrew Nouns used in English com. position, retain their original Plurals. Commonly the terminations um, us, and on, of the Singular, are changed into a, for the Plural; x into ces and is into es.

Singular.Datum, Genus, Criterion, Index, Axis,

Plural.-Data, Genera, Criteria, Indices, Axes.
NOTE.—For other examples of Number, see Appendix, Note C.



Let the Class give, 1st, the Gender-2d, the Person-3d, the Number of each of the following Names-always giving a reasor for the modification, by repeating the Definitions.

William, Boy, Town, Army,

Girl, County, Data,
Andes, Aunt, Troy,

Cousin, City,


Let Sentences be made, in which the following Words shall be in tne Second Person.


“Father, thy hand hath reared this venerable column.”

Father, Stars, Thou, Heralds,
Mother, Hills, You, Messengers,
Rivers, Ye,

Earth, Woods, Men,

Let other Sentences be made, having the same Words in the
Tkoj Person, after the following


“My Father made them all.”

Der Let the following Singular Nouns be changed to their Plurals, and placed in Sentences, always giving the Rule for the change of Number. Boy, Motto, Fox,


Father, Hero, Staff,


Man, Knife, Goose, Basis, Cousin-german,
Child, Hoof, Mouse, Stratum, Knight-errant.


“The boys have accomplished their tasks.”

Let the Gender and Number of the following Nouns be changed and placed in Sentences.

Man, Bachelor, Brother, Poetess,
Boys, Lioness, Sons, Prince,
Uncles, Geese, Sister, Tutor,
Cousin, Cow,

Maid, Widower.


“Two women shall be grinding at the mill.”
“And the widows of Asher are loud in their wail.”


REM.-All Nouns and Pronouns are used,

1. As the Subject of a Sentence.
2. As a Definitive of some other Noun.
3. As the Object of an action or relation, or

4. Independent of other Words in the Sentence. REM. 2.—These different conditions of Nouns suggest their modificadions in regard to Case; for Case, in Grammar, means condition. Hence,

PRIN.—Nouns are distinguished as being in the

Nominative Case, Objective Case,
Possessive Case,

Independent Case.

Obs.-In the Latin, Greek, German, and many other languages, the Cases of Nouns are determined by their terminations. But, as English Nouns have no inflections, except to form Adljuncts, the Cases are deter ain:d only by the offices of Nouns in Sentences. Hence,

DEF.. 77.--A Noun or a Pronoun which is the subject of a Sentence, is in the Nominative Case. EXAMPLES. — Animals run- -John saws wood-Resources are developed.

“The King of Shadows loves a shining mark.” Obs. 1-The Subject of a Sentence may be a Noun, Pronoun, Phrase, or Sentence.



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1. A Noun. Virtue secures happiness. 2. A Pronoun.--" He plants his footsteps in the sea.” 3. A Phrase.—To be able to read well, is a valuable accomplishment." 4. A Sentence.That good men sometimes commit faults, can not be

denied. Obs. 2.-In Example (1), “Virtue" is the Subject of the Sentence; hence it is in the “condition" of the Nominative.

DEF. 78.—A Noun or a Pronoun varied in its orthography, so that it may indicate a relation of possession, is in the Possessive Case.

Obs. 1.—The Possessive is formed by adding an apostrophe and 8 to the Nominative.


Nominative.-Man, Boy, World, George.
Possessive.—Man's, Boy's,

World's, George's. “I would not yield to be your house's guest.”—Shakspeare. OBs. 2.-In a few Words, ending in the Singular, with the sound of s or of c soft, the additional s is omitted for euphony.

EXAMPLES.—“For conscience' sake.”—“Festus came into Felix' room." OBs. 3.- Most Plural Nouns ending in s, add the apostrophe only.


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Nominative.—Horses, Eagles,

Foxes. Possessive. ---Horses', Eagles', Foxes'. “Then shall man's pride and dullness comprehend

His action's, passion's, being's, use and end.”--Pope. OBS. 4.—The term Possessive Case is applied to Nouns and Pronours, to indicate a peculiar variation of Words in respect of form; and, because this form commonly indicates a relation of possession, it is termed Possessive Case But,


Obs. 5.—The Possessive Case does not always indicate “possession os ownership.”

Children's shoes.--Here the word “children's” dces not imply owner ship. It simply specifies “shoes” as to size.

Small shoes.—Here “small” specifies "shoes” in a similar manner “Sinall” and “children's” performing similar offices, are similar in their etymology. “Small” is an Adjective—“Children's” is an Adjective.

OBs. 6.—A System of Grammar, having its foundation in the doctrine that Words and other Elements of Sentences are to be classified according tu their offices—and that is the proper criterion-must class Possessiva Nouns and Pronouns as Adjectives.

Note the Exceptions to this Proposition, Obs. 9, below.

Obs. 7.-Words commonly used as Nouns and Pronouns become Adjectives whenever their principal office is to limit or describe beings 0? things; and they may have the form of the Nominative, the Possessive or the Objective Case.


Nominative Form.—A gold pen-a he goat.
Possessive Form.— Wisdom's waysthine enemy—my self.

Objective Form-A gold pen-silver steelthem selves. OBs. 8.—When such Words are not used as Adjuncts, they are Sub stantives, and are found to be in some case other than the Possessive, although they retain the Possessive form. [See Obs. and Examples below, p. 86.]

DEF. 79.--A Noun or a Pronoun which is the Object of a Sentence or a Phrase, is in the Objective Case.



1. John saws wood.
2. Science promotes happiness.
3. “The King of Shadows loves a shining mark.
4. “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

5. "Scaling yonder peak, I saw an eagle wheeling near its brow." DEF. 80.—A Noun or a Pronoun not dependent on way other Word in construction, is in the Independent Cass Obs. 1.—The Independent Case includes

1. The names of persons addressed. EXAMPLES.-0 Liberty !---“ Friends, Romans, countrymen.”

2.—Names used to specify or define other names previously



Paul the Apostle wrote to Timothy.

Here, “Paul” is the subject of “wrote;" helce in the Nominative Case (See Def. 78). Apostle” designates which “Paul” is intended; hence in the Independent Case. Webster, the Statesman, has been mistaken by some foreign authors,

for Webster, the Lexicographer. Here, the Words “ Statesman” and “ Lexicographerare used to limit, Wefine, and describe the two “Websters.” Hence,

3.-Words thus used are to be regarded as Logical Adjuncts

(See Part I, p. 29, Obs. 3.) 4.–Nouns used to introduce Independent Phrases. EXAMPLE.—The hour having arrived, we commenced the exercises.

5.--Nouns and Pronouns used in predication with Verbs. EXAMPLES.—“God is love.”—“It is I.”—“The wages of sin is death." 6.--Nouns and Pronouns used for euphony, titles of books, cards

signs, &c. EXAMFLES.—1. “The moon herself is lost in heaven.”

2. “Webster's Dictionary.

3. “ J. Barber, Son, and Company." Obs. 7.-In the English language, Nouns are not varied in form to distinguish the Cases, except for the Possessive. The Case is always determined by its office.

(1.) If it is the Subject of a Sentence, it is, therefore, in the

Nominative Case. (2.) If it is the Object of a Sentence or the Object of a Phrase.

it is, therefore, in the Objective Case. (3.) If it performs neither of these offices, and has not a Pos

sessive form, it is not joined to any word going before in

construction, and is, therefore, in the Independent Case. (4.) If it has a Possessive form, or any other form, and limits

or describes a being or a thing, it performs the office of

an Adjunct, and is, therefore, an Adjective. Obs. 8.-Nouns and Pronouns in the Nominative and the Objective Cases are used Substantively. In the Independent Case they are used Substantively, or as Logical Adjuncts. (See Obs. 2 & 3, above.) (u the Possessive Case they are commonly used as Grammatical Adjuncts.

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