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PRIN.-Nouns are modified by Gender, Person, Number and Case.

GENDER.

DEF, 68.-Gender is the modification of such Nouns and Pronouns as, by their form, distinguish the sex.

DEF. 69.-Nouns and Pronouns that indicate Males are of the Masculine Gender.

EXAMPLES.—Man-lion-ox-David-John.

DEF. 70.-Nouns and Pronouns indicating Females are of the Feminine Gender.

EXAMPLES.-Woman-lioness-cow-Dollie-Jane.

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DEF. 71.–Nouns and Pronouns that do not indicate

! the sex, are said to be of the Neuter Gender.

EXAMPLES.-Book-pen-table-star-planet.

Obs: 1. Strict propriety will allow the names of animals, only to be modified by Gender.

Obs. 2. =Young animals and infants are not always distinguished by Gender ; Mary's kitten is very playful-it is quite a pet with the whole family.”

“Calm as an infant as it sweetly sleeps.” 'OBs. 3.—Things personified are often represented by Pronouns of the Masculine or the Feminine Gender. EXAMPLES.—1. “Then Fancy her magical pinions spread wide."

2. “Time slept on flowers, and lent his glass to Hope.” 3. “For the Angel of Death spread his wings on the blast,

And breathed in the face of the foe as he pass'd.” Obs. 4.-Many Nouns which denote the office or condition of persons, and some others, are not distinguished by Gender.

EXAMPLES.-Parent-cousin--friend-neighbor-teacher.

Obs. 5.-Whenever Words are used which include both Males and Females, without having a direct reference to the sex, the Word apprer priated to males is commonly employed.

.

EXAMPLES.—1. “The proper study of mankind is man.”

2. “There is no flesh in man's olidur ate heart

It does not feel for man."
But to this rule t'ere are exceptions; as, geese, ducks.

PRIN.—The Gender of Nouns is determined,
1. By the termination; as,
Masc.
Fem.
Masc.

Fem.
Actor,
Actress.

Patron,

Patroness.
Adıninistrator, Administratrix. Prince,

Princess.
Author,
Authoress.

Protector, Protectress.
Governor,
Governess.

Shepherd, Shepherdess.
Heir,
Heiress.

Songster, Songstress.
Host,
Hostess,

Tiger,

Tigress.
Hero,
Heroine.

Tutor,

Tutoress.
Jew,
Jewesa

Tailor,

Tailoress.
Lion,
Lioness.

Widower, Widow.
2. By different Words; as,
Masc.
Fem.
Masc.

Fem.
Bachelor, Maid.

Husband,

Wife.
Beau,
Belle.

King,

Queen.
Boy,
Girl.

Lad,

Lass.
Brother,
Sister.

Lord,

Lady.
Drake,
Duck.

Man,

Woman.
Father,
Mother.

Master,

Mistress.
Friar,
Nun.

Nephew, Niece. 3. By prefixing or affixing other Words; as, Masc.

Fem.
Man-servant,

Maid-servant.
He-goat,

She-goat.
Cock-sparrow,

Hen-sparrow.
Landlord,

Landlady.
Gentleman.

Gentlewoman. NOTE.-In the English language, less importance is attached to the tender of Nouns than in the Latin, Greek, and other languages—the relation of Words in Sentences depending more upon position and less upon the terminations. Hence, in parsing Nouns and Pronouns, the Gender need not be mentioned, unless they are obviously Masculine or rerainine.

PERSON.

REM-All Nouns are the Names of

1. The person speaking.
2. The persons or things addressed. Or,

3. The persons or things spoken of. Hence, PRIN.-Nouns and Pronouns are of the

First Person, Second Person, or Third Person. DEF. 72.—The name of the speaker or writer is of the First Person.

EXAMPLES.—“), John, saw these things." « We Athenians are in fault."

DEF. 73.-—The name of a person or thing addressed is of the Second Person. EXAMPLE Father, thy hand

Hath reared these venerable columns; thou

Didst weave this verdant roof." DEF. 74.—The name of the person or thing spoken of is of the Third Person.

EXAMPLES.—“The hero hath departed.” “ Honor guides his footsteps."

NUMBER.
REM.—Nouns by their form denote individuality or plurality. Hence,
PRIN.-Nouns are distinguished as

Singular and Plural.
DEF. 75.-Nouns denoting but one are of the

Singular Number.
EXAMPLES.—Man-boy-pen_book-mouse-ox.
DEF. 76.—Nouns denoting more than one are of the

Plural Number. EXAMPLES. --Men-boys-pens—books—mice—oxen. Obs. 1.- The Number of a Noun is usually determined by its furn, The Plural of most Nouns differs from the Singular by baving an addei onal s.

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Obs. 2.- But a Noun whose Singular form ends in s, ss, sh, x, ch (soft) and some Nouns in o and y, form the Plural by the addition of es.

EXAMPLES.

Singular.-Gas, Lynx, Church, Lush, Glass, Hero,

Plural.-Gases, Lynxes, Churches, Lashes, Glasses, Heroes.

OBs. 3.—Y final, after a Consonant, is changed into ie (the original orthography), and s is added.

EXAMPLES.

Singular.–Lady,

Folly,

Quality, City.
Old form.--Ladie, Follie, Qualitie, Citie.

Plural.-Ladies, Follies, Qualities, Cities. Exception.—But Proper Nouns in y commonly form the Plurals by adding s to the y; as, the two Livysthe Tullys.

OBs. 4.-In the following Nouns, f final is changed into v, and the usual termination for the Plural is added:

Sing.
Plural.

Sing.

Plural.
Beef, Beeves.

Self,

Selves.
Calf,
Calves

Shelf,

Shelves.
Elf,
Elves.

Sheaf

Sheaves.
Half
Halves.

Thief,

Thieves.
Leaf,
Leaves.

Wolf,

Wolves.
Loaf, Loaves.

Other Nouns in f form their Plurals regularly.

OBs. 5.—But most Nouns ending in fe are changed into ves.

EXAMPLES.

Singular.--Knife, Life, Wife,

Plural.-Knives, Lives, Wives. OBS. 5.-Many Nouns form their Plurals irregularly.

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Obs. 7.--In most Compound Words, the basis only is varied to form the Plural, if its Adjunct Word precedes, or its Adjunct Phrase follyws.

EXAMPLES.

Singular.–Fellow-servant, Ink-stand, Race-horse, Camp-meeting. Plural.-Fellow-servants, Ink-stands, Race-horses, Camp-meetings

Singular.–Father-in-law, Aid-de-Camp.

Plural.—Fathers-in-law, Aides-de-Camp.

Obs. 8.—But, if the Adjunct Word follows the basis, the Plural termination is commonly attached to the Adjunct.

EXAMPLES

Singular.--Arm-full,

Plural.-Arm-fulls,

Camera-Obra,
Camera

as,

Ignis-fatuus.
Ignis-fatuuses.

OBs. 9.—In forming the Plural of Nouns having titles prefixed or annexed, custom is not uniform.

There seems to be a propriety in regarding a name and its title as a Compound Noun; as, Jonathan Edwards, John Smith, Miss Bowen.

If, then, it is decided which part of the Compound Word—the Name or the Titleis to be regarded as the basis, and which the Adjunct, the Plural termination should be attached as directed in Obs. 7 and 8, above. Thus, Miss Bowen and her sister, two ladies unmarried, are Misses. “I called to see the Misses Bowen.

“We purchase goods of the Messrs. Barber.” Here the titles consti. tute the bases, the names, the Adjuncts.

Again : Patterson the father and Patterson the son are two Pattersons. They are both doctors. If we speak of them as men, we make the Name the basis and the Title as Adjunct; thus, “I visited the two Doctor Pat tersons.” But if we speak of them as Doctors, we make the Title the basis, and pluralize it: thus, “We employed Doctors J. & A. Patterson.'

OBS. 10.-Some Nouns have no Plurals.
EXAMPLES. - Wheat-silver-gold-iron-gratitude.
Obs. 11.Some Nouns have no Singular.
EXAMPLES.— Tongs--embers-vespers-literati-scissors.
Obs. 12.- Some Nouns have the same Form in both Numbers.

Singular.--Apparatus,

Plural.— Apparatus,

EXAMPLES.
News,
News,

Wages,
Wages,

Sheep,
Sheep,

Vermin.
Vein 2.

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