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PRIN.—The Parts of a Compound Word exo the BASIS and the ADJUNCT.
DEF. 56.—The Basis of a Compound Word, is the Principal Element in the word. EXAMPLES. — Race-horse - horse-race — hour-glass — father-in-law
sergeant-at-arms-aid-de-camp. DEF. 57.—The Adjunct of a Compound Word is the Part that limits or modifies the Basis.
EXAMPLES.— Race-horse Horse-race — Hour-glass — father-in-law jack-o'-lantern -aid-de-camp.
OBS.—The Adjunct of a Word may be one Word or a Phrase.
A Phrase.-Father-in-laro-aid-de-camp--will-o'-the-wisp. REM.—Derivative and Compound Words have this distinction, viz : Compound Words consist of two or more complete Words ; whereas, Derivative Words consist of one Word with Letters or Particles prefixed
or attached. These Particles are called PREFIXES and SUFFIXES. DEF. 58.-A Prefix is one or more Letters placed before a Radical to form a Derivative Word.
EXAMPLES. — Reform - degrade – overlook - undertake-involve absolve-elect-perfect.
DEF. 59.-A Suffix is one or more letters added to a Word to make it Derivative.
may have more than one Prefix or Suffix. Hence, PRIN.--Prefixes and Suffixes are distinguished as Simple or Compound.
EXAMPLES OF SIMPLE
Un pre tending,
Prefixes and Suffixes.
PRIN.-The Radicals of Derivative Words are
SEPARABLE or INSEPARABLE.
DEF. 60.-A Separable Radical constitutes a perfect Word, without its Prefixes or Suffixes.
DEF. 61.-An Inseparable Radical is not used as a distinct word in the language without the aid of its Prefixes or Suffixes.
Undiverted, NOTE.- For an extended list of Prefixes and Suffixes, see
“ Derivation of Words” in the APPENDIX.
II. THE USES OF WORDS.
Prin.--By their uses, Words are distinguished as
, } Adjunct Elements.
DEF. 62.-A Noun is a Word used as the Name of a being, a place, or a thing.
EXAMPLES.——“The King of Shadows loves a shining mark."
1. Material things, as- - Man-book-house-apples.
-remorse-joy. OBS.—Let the Pupil be careful here to distinguish a name from the thing named; and remember that the name is the Noun. Thus, a house is a thing—the name of that thing is a Noun.
CLASSIFICATION OF NOUNS. REMARK.—Some Nouns are appropriated to individual persons or places, or to things personified; others are general in their application, being used to designate classes or sorts. Hence, PRIN.-Nouns are distinguished as
Proper and Common.
“Aud old Experience learns too late
DEF. 64.-A Common Noun is a name used to designate one or more of a class or sort of beings or things. EXAMPLES.—Man--book-conscience-feeling-landscape.
“Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight.” Obs. 1.--A Common Noun is a name by which the individuality of a being or thing is designated; but, in addition to this Office, some Nouns are the names of qualities.
DEF. 65.—An Abstract Noun is the name of a quality of a thing, and not of the Substance. EXAMPLES.—Goodness-meekness—impracticability.
“These all, in sweet confusion, sought the shade.” DEF. 66.-A Collective Noun is a Noun appropriated to many individuals in one term. EXAMPLES.—Committee-assembly--army-tribe-clan-multitude.
“The village master taught his little school.” DEF. 67.--A Verbal Noun is a Noun derived from a Verb; being in form, a Participle-in office, a Substantive. EXAMPLES.—Beginning-gatherings—spelling—joining.
“In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth." Obs. 1.-The Classification of Nouns as Common and Proper, is one rather of curiosity than of practical utility in the Science of Language Obs. 2.-A Word is known to be a Noun,
1st. By its being a Name.
2d. By its performing a Substantive office. Obs. 3.--A Substantive may be,
1. The Subject of a Sentence.
But, Obs. 4.-A Substantive office may be performed by Words, by Phrases, aud by Sentences.
1. By Words, Nouns.—Paul the Apostle wrote an Epistle to Timothy.
PRONOUNS.—Was it you that introduced me to him? 2. By Phrases." Taking a madman's sword, to prevent his doing
mischief, can not be regarded as robbing him.” 3. By Sentences.-" That all men are created equal, is a self-evident
Hence, OBs. 5.-A Noun is generally Substantive. But a Word commonly vsed as a Noun may become,
1. An Adjective; as, An iron fence-gold leaf.
“But if you mouth it.” Obs. 6.—A Substantive office is sometimes performed by words comvonly used,
1. As Adjectives—“The good alone are great."
"Nor grudge I thee the much the Grecians give,
Nor, murm’ring, take the little I receive.”—Dryden. 2. As Adverbs
“ 'Tis Heaven itself that points out an hereafter.”--Addisoro 3. As Conjunctions“Your if is the only peace-maker; much virtue is in if.”.
Shakspeare. 4. As an Exclamation
“With hark and whoop and wild halloo."-Scott.
MODIFICATION OF NOUNS.
REM.Some Nouns and Pronouns, by their form, by their position in w Sentence, or by their obvious uses, indicate
1. The sex—as male or female, or neither.
(1.) The Subject of a Sentence.