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APPENDIX.

1

NOTE A. REM.–Orthography properly belongs to a separate branch of the Science of Language. The following Synopsis is given, chiefly to present the Author's views as to the proper method of presenting this subject.

DEF.--Orthography is that branch of the Science of Language which treats of LETTERS—their forms, their offices, and their combinations in the structure of WORDS.

Obs. 1.- The English Language has twenty-six Letters, which are distinguished by their forms and uses.

Obs. 2.—The various forms of letters are exhibited in the following table:

ROMAN-Capitals.
А B 0 D
F G H I

K L M
N 0 P Q R S T U

W X Y Z

Small.
b
d
f g

h i j k 1
р 9

у
ITALIC—Capitals.
B o D

F G H I J K L M
N 0 P Q R 8 T V W X Y 2

Small.
b
d
f 9

h i j ke 1
P 9
t

y
OLD ENGLISH--Capitals.
A 3 C D L f

W

J 长 I
N
P
R
T

V LUX X

Small.
b
e f

b { f k 1
9
t u

w f 2

Jw

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OBs. 1.—Roman letters are in most common use in the English language.

Ilaric Letters are used in words of special importance, and sometimes in Sentences.

In the Sacred Scriptures, words supplied by the translators to complete the construction of Sentences according to the English idiom, are printed in Italics,

Old English Letters are used for, variety or ornamert-in title

pages, etc.

OBS.—The small, or “lower case” Letters, are used in forming most Words, and constitute the appropriate form of letters now used in printed works—with the following EXCEPTIONS, which provide for the

use of

CAPITAL LETTERS. RULE 1.-A word should begin with a capital letter, when it is the first word of a distinct proposition.

RULE 2.—When it is a Proper Name, or a word immediately derived from a Proper Name.

EXAMPLE.—Boston-William-- American-Vermonter.

RULE 3.—When it is a name or appellation of the Supreme Being

EXAMPLES.-God-Saviour-Holy Spirit-Lord-Omnipotent.
RULE 4.-When it is the first-word of a line in poetry.
EXAMPLE. —"Twinkle, twinkle, little star,

How I wonder what you are;
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky."

RULE 5.—When it is a principal word in a title of a book or office, and sometimes when it is a word of special importance, or used technically. EXAMPLES." Willard's History of the United States."

“ Burke on the Sublime and Beautiful." .
“The Subject of a Verb should not take the place of the

Object."

RULE 6.— When it commences a direct quotation.
EXAMPLES.—“ The footman, in his usual phrase,

Comes up with ‘Madam, dinner stays.'”
“Wo to him that saith unto the wood, ‘Awake.""

RULE 7.-- When it constitutes the Pronoun "I" or the Exclamation "0." EXAMPLES. —“0, I have loved in youth's fair vernal morn,

To spread Imagination's wildest wing.”

RULE 8.- When it is a Common Noun fully personified. EXAMPLES.—“Sure I Fame's trumpet hear.” —Coroley.

“Here Strife and Faction rule the day.” Obs. --Letters are of various sizes, and have their corresponding appropriate names. The varieties of type in most common use are the following:

1. Pica.-ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUV WXYZ. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz.

2. Small Pica.-ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUV WXYZ. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz.

3. Long Primer.-ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWX YZ. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz.

4. Bourgeois.-ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. abcde fghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz.

5. Brevier.-ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklm nopqrstuvwxyz.

6. Minion.-ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. abcdefghijklmn opqrstuvwxyz.

7. Nonpareil.–ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. abcdefghijklmzeg rstuvwxyz.

8. Agate.-ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz. 9. Pearl.-ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz. 10. Diamond.--ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz.

THE OFFICES OF LETTERS. PRIN.-Letters constitute the Elements of Words, and, like the Elements of Sentences and Phrases, are distinguished as Principal Elements and Adjunct Elements.

DEF. 1.—The Principal Elements of a Word are the Letters which indicate the principal sound. They are called VOWELS.

EXAMPLES. .-a in mateme in memoi in toil-ou in sound-ă in hắt è in mět-ain aphæresis—in subpoena.

DEF. 2.—The Adjuncts of a Word are the Letters prefixed or added to the Principal Elements to modify their sound. They are called CONSONANTS.

EXAMPLES.—m in mate, mert in mate, time-l in toil, lame-cin cider, caneh in hat, hate-s in aphæresis, sound—v in vile, twelve-p in posty happy.

REM.-For convenience in articulation, most words are divided into Parts, called Syllables ; hence,

DEF. 3.-A Syllable is a whole Word, or such part of a Word as is uttered by one impulse of the voice.

EXAMPLES,-Man, man-ly, man-li-ness, un-man-ly.

DEF. 4.—When a Word has but one Principal Part, it is pronounced by one impulse of the voice, and is then called a Monosyllable.

EXAMPLES.-Hand-fall-me-30--strength.

DEF. 5.—When a Word has two Principal Parts, it requires two articulations, and is then called a Dissyllable.

EXAMPLES.—Handsome-falling-strengthen-holy.

DEF. 6.- When a Word has three Principal Parts, it requires three articulations, and is then called a Polysyllable.

Obs. 1.—Generally a Word has as many Syllables as it has Principal Purts.

a

OBs. 2.—Two Letters may form one Principal Part of a Word when they are placed together, and combine to form one sound.

EXAMPLES. -oi in toil-ou in sound-ai in fair.

OBs. 3.-A Letter, ordinarily used as a Vowel, is sometimes added to a Syllable or a Word, to modify the Sound of other Letters, and is then an Adjunct.

EXAMPLES.—e in time-y in they-i in claim.

OBs. 4.-One Letter is often made to represent the Sound of another EXAMPLES.—e represents a in they

e represents u in her-i represents u in sir.

Obs. 5.-In written Language, many Letters are used which are not sounded in spoken Language. Such are called Silent Letters.

EXAMPLES.-Hymn, thumb, eight, phthisic.

OBs. 6.--One or more of the Letters constituting a Word, are some times used as the representative of that word. These are called

.....In

ABBREVIATIONS.
The most common abbreviations are the following:
A. C.... ...Before Christ....from the Latin.. Ante Christum.
A B.. .....Bachelor of Arts.......

. Artium Baccalaureu A. D.

the
year
of our Lord

. Anno Domini,
Master of Arts...

.. Artium Magister. A. M. ... In the year of the world. . Anno Mundi. In the forenoon...

.. Ante Meridiem. B. 1). ..... Bachelor of Divinity

.Baccalaureus Divinitatis. D. D. ..Doctor of Divinity

..Doctor Divinitatis. e. g. .For example

.Exempli gratia.

.Id est. LL.D.. .....Doctor of Laws,

.Legum Doctor. L. S. ......Place of the seal...

. Locus Sigilli.
...Gentlemen.

.French.. Messieurg.
M. D. .....Doctor of Medicine . Latin. ..Medicinæ Doctor.
MS.. Manuscript..

.Scriptum Manus
N. B.
..... Take notice

.Nota Bene.
Afternoon..
P. M.

Post Meridiem.

i. e.

...... That is :

Messrs.....

P.S. .Postscript......
S.T. D.. ... Doctor of Theology

.Post Scriptum.
.Sanctæ Theologiæ Doctor

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