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3. A Verb and a Participle.-John was injured Willie is reading

Thou art perched aloft on the beetling crag." 4. A Verb and an Adjective.—James became poor--Warner is sleepy

“And the waves are white below.” 8. A Verb and a Noun.—God is love-We are friends.

The proper study of mankind is man. 6. A Verb and a Pronoun.—It is I- Who are you?

« Thine is the kingdom.” 7. A Verb and a Preposition. Its idle hopes are o’er.

That business has been attended to.
REMARKS.—The Predicate is varied not only in form, but also in ita
functions.

1. It may assert an actmas, William walks
2. It may assert beingas, God exists.
3. It may assert qualityas, Sugar is sweet.
4. It may assert possession—as, Thine is the kingdom.”
5. It may assert identityas, It is I.
6. It may assert condition—as, Its idle hopes are o’er.
7. It may assert change of condition--as, “His palsied hand

waxed strong.".
OBs. 1.—The term “ Predicate” has two applications—a Logical and a
Grammatical. The Logical Predicate includes the Grammatical Predicule
and its Object. Thus, in the sentence,

“The king of shadows loves a shining mark,” " Loves a shining mark,is the Logical Predicate; “ Loves" is the Grammatical Predicate.

Obs 2.-Iv Sentences that have no Objects, the Logical and the Gram matical Predicates are identical. Thus, in the sentence,

“ The oaks of the mountains fall,” " Fall” is both the Logical and the Grammatical Predicate.

Obs. 3.-Tip Modified Predicate includes the Grammatical Prearcurs and its Adjuncto Thus, in the sentence,

i rw winds are in the pines,” Are in the poules in Mooined Predicate of “winds." “ Are" is the Gruimtinau dedicate.

REM. — The Object of a Senience, being distinct from the Grammatical Predicate, is properly regarded as a distinct Element in the structure of such Sentences as contain Objects. Hence,

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DEF. 38.-The Object of a Sentence is the Word or Words on which the act, expressed by the Predicate, terminates.

OBs.—The Object of a Sentence is a Noun, or a Word, a Phrase, or a Sentence used for a Noun.

EXAMPLES.
A Noun.-John saws wood-Birds build nests.

“Shall joy light the face of the Indian ?”

“The king of shadows loves a shining mark.” 2. A Pronoun. I have seen him— Whom seekest thou !

“Oft the shepherd called thee to his flock.”

“We buried him darkly, at dead of night.” 3. A Phrase.-- " I regret his being absent.

“His being a minister, prevented his rising to civil power.” 4. A Sentence.—"The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God."

“And God said, Let there be light.
God never meant that man should scale the heavens
By strides of human wisdom."

ADJUNCT ELEMENTS.

REM.-If I say, Students deserve approbation, I make an “ unqualified assertion,” applicable to all “students,” and to the “ approbation" of all persons. But, if I say Diligent Students deserve the approbation of their Teacher, I speak of only a particular class of Students, -and of approbation as limited to a particular source; for the Word Student,” is limited by the word diligent;" and the Word approbation,” is limited by the Word "the,” and by the Phrase “ of their Teacher." These limiting Words and Phrases are necessary, not to make the Sentence, but to perfort, tiro sense ; they are joined to other words, and are therefore called majuncts. PRIN.-An Adjunct Element may be

A Word, 1 A Phrase, | A Sentence.

EXAMPLES.

(a) A Word.—1. We were walking homeward.

2. We shall arrive soon.
3.

Brilliantly
The glassy waters mirror back His smiles"

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4. “ Darkly waves each giant bough.”.

5. “ A purple robe his dying frame shall fold"
(6) A Phrase.-1. We were walking towards home.

2. We shall arrive in a short time.
3. Sons of sorrow echoed notes of sadness.
4. I came to bury Cæsar.
5. " Scaling yonder peak,

I saw an eagle wheeling near its broro."
(c) A Sentence.-1. Students, who study, will improve.

2. Students will improve, if they study.
3. They kneeled before they fought.
4. “The sweet remembrance of the just,

Shall flourish when he sleeps in dust.

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ANALYSIS.
How I dear | to my heart | are | the | scenes l of my childhood, I

| When I fond | recollection | presents them to view.” Hour,

limits“ dear," Hence, an Adjunct Word. To my heart,"

are dear," Hence, an Adjunct Phrase.' My,"

“heart," Hence, an Adjunct Word. The."

scenes,” Hence, an Adjunct Word. Of my childhood,"

scenes,” Hence, an Adjunct Phrase. My,"

“childhood,” Hence, an Adjunct Word.

are dear," Hence, an Adjunct Sentence. presents them to view," Fond,"

“recollection,” Hence, an Adjunct Word. « To view,

“presents," Hence, an Adjunct Phrase. REM. - Adjuncts are used to limit or describe things, or to modify acta or qualities. Hence, PRIN.—Adjuncts are distinguished as

ADJECTIVES or ADVERBS.

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Obs. 1.- Adjective Adjuncts, whether Words, Phrases, ir Sentences, are such as answer to the questions, What? What kind? Whose ? Horo many ? &c. They are attached, in construction, to Nouns and Pronouns.

OBs. 2.--Adverbial Adjuncts---Words, Phrases, or Sentences--are such as answer to the questions, How? Why? Where? Whence? Whether! do. They are attached to Verbs. to Adjectives, and to Adverbs.

OBS. 3 — Words, Phrases, and Sentences, having no Grammatical connection with other Elements in a Sentence, often perform Adjunct offices, by limiting or modifying the application of other Elements. Such are properly called Logical Adjuncts.

EXAMPLES.

(a) Words.-1. Webster, the Statesinan, is remotely related to Webster,

the Lexicographer. 2. Clay--Cassius M.-had more honorable benevolence

than political sagacity. (6) Phrases.—1. “ Napoleon having fallen, there is no more cause for

alarm." 2. “Thus talking, hand in hand, alone they passed on

to their blissful bower.” (c) Sentences.--"I solemnly declare-and I do not speak unadvisedly

that the measures adopted by the passage of those resolutions

will hasten the dissolution of the Union." REM.—The words “ Statesinan” and “ Lexicographer are used to Jistinguish the two “Websters;" “ Cassius M.,” to determine which “Clay" is spoken of:—the Phrase “ Napoleon having fallen,” to tell why there is no more cause for alarm; and “I do not speak unadvisedly,is a Sentence thrown in to add force to the Principal Sentence. Hence, we have Grammatical Adjuncts and Logical Adjuncts.

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(a) Quest. Of what is something here said? Ans. Something is said of " Birds."

What is said of “ Birds” ? A. They fly.

These two Words thus placed, form what I A. A Sentence, for they constitute "an assemblage of words, so arranged as to assert an entire proposition.”

(6)

Birds fly.
Quest. In this Sentence, for what is the Word “ Birds” used!
Ans. To tell what fly.”

For what is the Word “fly” used!
A. To tell what " Birds” do.

(c) Birds fly.

"Every Sentence must have a Subject and a Predicate Quest. In this Sentence, what is the Subject ?

Ans. "Birds"—for it is that of which something is asserted."

What is the Predicate ? A. Fly"-for “it is the word that expresses what is asserted of the Subject."

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Thus, analyze the following additional

EXAMPLES.

1. Fishes swim.

7. Waters are running. 2. Horses gallop.

8. Mary is reading. 3. Lightnings flash.

9. Winter has come. 4. Thunders roll.

10. Resources are developed. 5. Girls sing.

11. Wheat has been sown. 6. Boys play

12. Mountains have been elevated.
13. Lessons should have been studied.
14. Recitations could have been omitted.

15. He might have been respected.
REM.—In the last example, the four words “might have been re-
spected,” constitute the Predicate of “he.”

REM. 2.--The Pupil will notice that, when the Predicate consists of more than one word, the last word makes the Principal Assertion ; the other words perform subordinate offices. Thus, in Example 13, “Should” denotes obligation; “Should have" denote obligation and time; “Should have been” denote obligation, time, and voice. These are subordinate to the principal assertion expressed by the word “Studied.”

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