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Obs. 2.–When an Adjective supplies the place of an Adverb, by representation, the Adjective form should be retained.

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Expanded. --. The house was painted with green paint.

2. Open thy mouth to a wide extent. Green” and “wide" are Adverts by representation.

Obs. 3.—This construction should be carefully distinguished from that of Adjectives in Predicate.





Correct.–1. The orange tasted sweet. sweet

2. Velvet feels smooth.

3. Some deemed him wondrous wise. Incorrect.-1. The orange tasted sweetly.

2. Velvet feels smoothly.

3. Some deemed him wondrous wisely. Obs. 4.—The words which Adverbs properly modify are sometimes suppressed EXAMPLES." Thou canst but add one bitter wo

To those [ ] already there.” Obs. 5.-Adverbs sometimes supply the place of Verbs which they modify EXAMPLES.—1. Back to thy punishment, false fugitive.”

2. away to the pleasant land.” OBs. 6.—Many words, commonly used as Adverbs, often take the place of Nouns, and become Pronouns. EXAMPLES.-1. Till then for till that time.

2. From thence-for from that place.
3. And I have made a pilgrimage from far.Hosmer.
4. “O, let the ungentle spirit learn from hence,

A small unkindness is a great offense.”
Obs. 7.—Participles become Adverbs whenever they indicate the man ·
ser of an action or modify a quality. .
EXAMPLES. 'Tis strange, 'tis passing strange.”

“A virtuous household, but exocca'ng poor.”

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OBs. 8.—But most Participial Adverbs have the suffix ly added, or they become Adverbs by representation. EXAMPLES. — 1. “He spoke feelingly on that subject.”

2. “She conducted herself most lovingly throughout the

3. “Now it mounts the wave,

And rises, threatening, to the frowning sky.”
4. “The surging billows and the gamboling storms

Come, crouching, to his feet.”.
“Come” in a crouching" attitude. (See Obs. 2, above.)

Obs. 9.—A few words, commonly employed as Prepositions, are some times used Adverbially. EXAMPLES.—1. “Thou didst look down upon the naked earth.”

2. “And may, at last, my weary age

Find out the peaceful hermitage.”
3. “Master Sir Philip, you may come in.”



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Note II.—But one Negative Word or Particle should be used in asserting a negative proposition. For,

Obs. 1.—Two Negatives applied to the same act or quality, make it affirmative. EXAMPLES.-1. “ Not without cause.

2. “Such occurrences are not unfrequent."

Nor did he not perceive them.”

4. “ IIe did not forget not to pay for the books."
Obs. 2.--Negative Prefixes in derivative words have the same force as
Negative Adverbs.
EXAMPLES.—1. “He was not unmindful of his obligations."

2. “Such expressions are not inelegant.”
3. “That costume would not be inappropriate to the

occasion.” Rem. 1.--Such expressions have not always the full force of the corresponding affirmative assertions, but serve to negative the negative assertion.

OBs. 8.--Negative Adverbs are used primarily to modify Verba.
EXAMPLE.—1. “They wept nor.”
(2.) To modify Adjectives.
EXAMPLES.—2. Not one of the family was there

3. "Not every one that saith unto me, 'Lord! Lord !' shall

enter into the kingdom of heaven.” (4.) To modify other Adverbs. EXAMPLES. —4. He is not generally in error.

5. "They died not by hunger or lingering decay,

The steel of the white man hath swept them away." 6. “Not as the conqueror coines,

They, the true-hearted, came.” Rem. 1.—The influence of the Negatives, not, neither, etc., is often exerted on Nouns, Phrases, and whole Sentences. And, generally, when a Negative occurs in connection with other Adjuncts, the influence of the Negative reaches the whole proposition, including the other Adjuncts. Thus, in Example (5), "not" modifies the phrase, by hunger or lingering decay.And in Example (6), “noť negatives the sentence“ as the con

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queror comes."

Obs. 4.—The Adverbs, yes, yea, no, nay, are independent in construction.

REM. 1.-The relation of these words to others in the sentence or period is logical rather than grammatical. Their grammatical relation is generally to Elements in Sentences suppressed.


NOTE III.-The Position of Adverbs should be such as most clearly to convey the sense intended. .

OBS. 1.-Adverbs which modify Verbs generally precede a Single Verb in Predicato. EXAMPLES.—1. “Man naturally SEEKs his own happiness.”

2. Then, when I am thy captive, TALK of chaing."

3. “ Now FADES the glimmering landscape on the sight." Obs. 2.-When the Predicate consists of more than one werd, the Adverb is commonly placed after the first word in Predicate.

EXAMPLES. -1. “We can not honor our country with too deep a

reverence.” 2. “I HAVE always BEEN an admirer of happy human


3. “I WILL never LEAVE thee nor FORSAKE thee.” OBs. 3.-Adverbs modifying Adjectives are placed before their Ad. jectives. EXAMPLES.-1. “We can not honor our country with too DEEP a reve

2. “ We can not love her with an affection too PURE and

3. “The very RICH man can never be truly HAPPY.”

4. “The selfish man can never be truly POLITE Exception. The word enough, used Adverbially, is commonly placed after its Adjective.

Obs. 4.-Adverbs are placed before other Adverbs which they modify. EXAMPLES.-1. How LIGHTLY mounts the muse's wing.”

2. “Too low they build, who build beneala the stars."
3. “ How ARDENT I seized it with hands that were


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OBs. 5.-Adverbial Phrases are commonly placed after the words which they modify. EXAMPLES.—1. “There CAME to the beach a poor exile of Erin.”

2. “Time SLEPT on flowers and lent his glass to Hope."
3. “The firmament GROWS BRIGHTER with every golden

grain." OBs. 6.—Adverbial Sentences are commonly placed after the words which they modify. EXAMPLES.—1. “The firmament grows brighter with every golden

grain, As handful after handful falls on the azure plain.

2. “And I am glad that he has lived thus long." REM.—To the above rules for the Position of Adverbial Elements, there are numerous exceptions. No specific rules can be given, which will always be applicable. The judgment and taste of the writer are required to decide as to the Position of all the Elements of Sonteucos.



255.-Repeat RULE 8.

An Adverbial Element may consist of what i

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 1.
Adverbs may modify what Elements of a Sentence !

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 2.
Repeat Note I.

How are Adverbs, derived from Adjectives and Nouns, formed I 256.—When may the Adjective form be retained !

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 2.
“Cora feels happily to-night.”

Correct that Sentence by Obs. 3. (See also p. 250.)
When are Participles used Adverbially?

Make Examples adapted to Obs. 7. 257.- Make Examples adapted to Obs. 8.

Make Examples adapted to Obs. 9.

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Repeat Note IL
"I have not seen none of your

Correct that Sentence by Obs. 1.
“Warner was not unwilling to go to school."

Make an equivalent Sentence. (See Obs. 2.)
258.-What is there peculiar in the use of Negative Adverbs!

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 3.


Repeat Note III.
What is the usual position of Adverbial Words i
William studies commonly diligently very.

Correct that Sentence by Obs. 1 and 4.
I never will disturb my quiet with the affairs of stule."

Correct that by Obs. 2.
259.-" The day was pleasant very, and the wind fair exceedingly."

Correct that by Obs. 3.
What is the usual position of Adverbial Phrases 1

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 5.
What is the usual position of Adverbial Sentences !

Make Complex Sentences to illustrate Obs. 6.

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