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EXAMPLE_"The love of God shall make their bliss secure."
Rev.—This may mean God's love to them or their love to God.

Obs. 4.-If we intend the former, the ambiguity may be removed by the Phrase to them, placed after the word “God,” or, if the latter, by the word their in place of the word “the.” Thus,

1. The love of God to them shall make their bliss seeure.

2. Their love of God shall make their bliss secure. Obs. 5.—Adjectives derived from Nouns and Pronouns in the Possessive Case, often retain their Substantive character, and may be qualified by other Adjectives.

EXAMPLE.—“He saw that WRITING's truth.” “That” specifies “writing." He saw the truth of that writing.

Rem.—This observation is also applicable to other Adjectives derived from Nouns.

A cast iron hinge.” “Cast” qualifies “iron;" and “iron” is an Adjective.

OBs. 6.-A word in the Possessive form is often used to specify a Phrase. EXAMPLES.–1. “Upon Mr. TALBOT's being made Lord Chancellor."

Life of Butler 2. “From our being born into the present world. ..."

Butler's Analogy Obs. 7.In constructions like the above, the Possessive sign should not be omitted. Correct construction.—All presumption of DEATH's being the destruction

of living beings, must go upon the supposition that they are

compounded.—Bp. Butler. Incorrect construction.—1. “Nor is there so much as any appearance of our limbs being endued with a power of moving,etc.

Bp. Butler. 2. “A fair wind is the cause of a VESSEL sailing.

Graham's Synonyms. Rem. In the last example, the author intended to say that wind is the cause of an act—an act expressed by the word “sailing.”

But he makes himself say that wind is the cause of a thinga thing uamed by the word “vessel.”

Corrected.-Wind is the cause of a VESSEL's sailing.

Obs. 8.—Possessive Adjectives are sometimes qualified by Sentences introduced by Relative Pronouns and by Phrases.

EXAMPLES.—1. “How various his employments whom the world calls

idle."— Willson's Burns. 2. “I have spoken of his eminence as a judge." 3. “Heaven be THEIR resource who have no other but the

charity of the world."

REM.—It is the Substantive Element in the Possessive Adjective that is thus limited by the Auxiliary Sentence. Thus, "his” is equivalent to

of him;" and " himis limited by the Sentence “whom the world calls idle"


Obs. 9.—When the Possessive is used Adjectively, it is placed before the Noun or the Pronoun which it specifies. EXAMPLES.—1. The WIDOW's mite.

2. The CULPRIT'S confession.

3. Our father and our mother.
Obs. 10.—Like other Specifying Adjectives, it precedes Qualifying
Adjectives belonging to the same Noun or Pronoun.
EXAMPLES. —1. “The BROOK's bright wave.”

2. “The wind's lov sigh.”
3. Our devoted father and our affectionate mother.


Obs. 11.—Possessive Adjectives, in addition to their primary office, sometimes introduce Auxiliary Sentences. EXAMPLES.—1. “All are but parts of one stupendous WHOLE,

Whose body Nature is, and God the soul.”—Pope. 2. “There are a sort of MEN whose visages Do cream and mantle like a standing pond.”

Shakspeare. REM.—In Sentence (1), “whose” is an Adjunct of “body," and it is ased also to introduce the Adjunct Sentence “Whose body Nature is, and God the soul.”

Obs. 12.—The Possessive Adjective is often the Logical Subject of a Participle.

EXAMPLES.—1. “I have an engagement which prevents my staying

longer with you.”

2. “I allude to your inviting me to your forests.”—Pope. Who invited me ?-you This observation also applies to Substantives. EXAMPLE.--The boy's mistake. Who mistook !-the boy.


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NOTE III.—An Adjective, like a Participle, may be used in Predicate, with a Verb, when the Verb requires its aid to make the assertion. EXAMPLES.—1. “His palsied hand waxed strong."

2. “Canst thou grow sad as Earth grows bright pas
3. Vanity often renders man contemptible.

4. Virtue always makes man happy. Obs. 1.--Many English Verbs contain the signification of such Adjec tives in themselves. Thus,

Waxed strong”. .has its equivalent, strengthened. Grows bright

brightens. Makes happy"

happifies Obs. 2.—But not all Predicate Adjectives have their equivalent Verbs Thus, for the Predicate, “Renders contemptible,” we have not the Verb, contemptibleize.

OBs. 3.-Participles, like Verbs, sometimes require the use of Adjectives to complete the sense. Adjectives thus used are said to be "in Predicate." EXAMPLES.-1 “The desire of being happy reigns in all hearts.”

2. Her highest happiness consists in making others happy. Obs. 4.-Adjectives may be in Predicate(1.) With Transitive Verbs—Active Voice. EXAMPLES. — 1. "They'll make me mad, they'll make me mad.

2. “The study of science tends to make us devout." (2.) With Passive Verbs. EXAMPLES.—1. “He was made wretched by his own folly.”

2. “The children were rendered miserable by the sins of (3.) With Neuter and other Intransitive Verbs. EXAMPLES.-1. “How dear to my heart are the scenes of my childhood

the father.”

2. “ Be not therefore grieved nor angry with yourselves.'

(4.) With Verbs—Infinitive Mode.
EXAMTLES.—1. “The study of science tends to make us devout."

2. “Dost thou well to be angry?

3. “I own it made my blood run cold." (5.) With Participles as Adjectives. EXAMPLES.—1. Falling short of this, we cannot succeed.”

2. Our horse becoming frightened, we leaped frun the

carriage." (6.) With Participles as Verbal Nouns. EXAMPLES. -1. “Her life was spent in making others happy.

2. Becoming angry at trifles is indicative of a weak

mind." OBS. 5.—This construction of the Adjective should be carefully distinguished from that in which it is used as a representative of an Adverbial Phrase. EXAMPLES.-1. “Caled entered every day early and returned late."

2. “The surging billows and the gamboling storms come

crouching to his feet.” 3. “The mind was well informed, the passions [were]

held subordinate, and diligence was choice.” “Early”. substituted for at an early hour. “ Late”.

at a late hour. “ Crouching”.

in a crouching attitude. “Subordinate” ...

in a subordinate condition Hence, “early,” “late,” “ crouching,” and “subordinate,” are to bo parsed

(1.) As Adverbs—being used as representatives of Adverbial Phrases.

(2.) But in the analysis of these Phrases, these words are to be parsed, in their individual capacity, as Adjectives, qualifying their Substantives understood.

REM.-For Substantives in Predicate, see “Independent Case."

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Note IV.-Adjectives used in Predicate should not take the Adverbial form.


Incorrect.—1. William feels badly to-night. 2. I feel sadly.

3. How beautifully it looks! 4. It appears strangely to me Corrected.—William feels bad to-night. I feel sado How beautiful it looks ! It

appears strange to me. Rem.--It will be noticed that the Adjective in Predicate does not, modify the Verb. It describes the Subject by the aid of the Verh. Hence,

Obs. 1.-Adverbs are not used as a part of the Grammatical Predicate.

OBs. 2.—The Verb used in Predicate with an Adjective is sometimes suppressed. EXAMPLES.–1. "No position, however exalted, could satisfy his am


2. “A man may grow rich by seeming poor.” REM.—“Exalted” is in Predicate with “may be,” suppressed. “ Poor"


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OBs. 3.-An Adjective Word is commonly placed before its Noun and after its Pronoun: an Adjective Phrase or Sentence after its Norn ur Pronoun EXAMPLES.—1. An influential man.

2. A man of influence.

3. A man who possesses influence.
OBs. 4.-But when an Adjective Word is limited or modified by a
Phrase, it is commonly placed after its Noun.
EXAMPLES.-1. “Seest thou a man DILIGENT in his business."

2. "Truth, CRUSHED to earth, will rise again."

“From the shore,
Eat into caverns by the restless wave,
And forest-rustling mountains, comes a voice,
That, soleinn-sounding, bids the world prepare."

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