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Obs. 3.-Double Comparatives and Superlatives are improper.
EXAMPLE.—In the calmest and most stillest night.
Obs. 4.—But Lesser is often used by good writers.
EXAMPLE.—“ The lesser co-efficient.”Davies Algebra.

REM.—The Comparison of Adjectives is not commonly absolute, but relative. Thus, in saying this is the sweetest apple, I merely say that this apple possesses a higher degree of the quality than all other apples with which it is compared.

SPECIFYING ADJECTIVES.

NOTE IV.-Specifying Adjectives should be so used as clearly to signify the real intention of the speaker or writer.

1

Rem. 1.—The peculiar province of Specifying Adjectives is to indicate the individuality of beings or things. Hence,

Obs. 1.-Specifying Adjectives should be used-
(1.) Before Nouns taken in a restricted sense.
EXAMPLES.—1. The Man of wealth and pride

Takes up a space that many poor supplied.”
2. "He has betrayed the CONFIDENCE of his FRIENDS.”

3. The TRUTH of that proposition is self-evident.”
REM. 2.—But Nouns may be restricted by the use of Phrases.
EXAMPLES.—1. “Love of virtue is exhibited in DEEDS of charity.

2. “APPLICATION to studies secures EXCELLENCE in scholar

ship."
Obs. 2.-Specifying Adjectives should not be used
(1.) Before Nouns taken in a general sense.
EXAMPLES.-1. “Man needs but little here below."

2. “ Confidence is a plant of slow growth."

3. “ Truth crushed to earth shall rise again."
(2.) Before Proper Nouns.
EXAMPLES. — Jackson was the more skillful general

Webster, the greater statesman.

Note V.-A Specifying Adjective should be repeated when its omission would occasion ambiguity or obscurity.

Obs. 1.--We properly repeat the Specifying Adjective(1.) Before two or more Nouns specifically distinct. EXAMPLES. —1. Man knows neither the day nor the hour of his depar.

ture. 2. The North and the South Lines are parallel. 3. “Bowen, the editor of “The Teacher,' and the State

Superintendent, will attend the Institute.” Rex.—The omission of “the” before “State Superintendent” would imply that “Bowen” is the State Superintendent.

4. The teacher and the pupil.

5. “My poverty and not my will consents.” (2.) When two or more Nouns are joined in the same construction and taken severally,—especially if a part of the Nouns are suppressed. EXAMPLES.–1. We have sold the black, the bay, and the white horse.

2. The vain, the wealthy, and the proud,

In folly's maze advance.” 3. The first, the third, and the fifth child, were sons. 4. “The honorable the Legislature of the State of New

York.”

NOTE VI.-Specifying Adjectives should not be repeated

(1.) Before an additional Noun used as an epithet of the same priu. eipal Substantive.

1. The HEAD and FRONT of my offending hath this extent." 2. The North and South line is accurately drawn.”

EXAMPLE.—Rice, the State Superintendent and President of the State Teachers' Association, will attend the Institute.

Rem.—The Adjective theplaced before the Noun “ Presideni, " would imply that Rice is not State Superintendeut.

NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. NOTE VII.-In the use of Adjectives that imply Number, such should be employed as agree in Number with their Nouns. EXAMPLES. -- A book-one book-three books.

This book that book- some books.
Obs. 1.-But a Noun having two or more Adjectives differing in
Number, may agree in Number with the one placed next it.

EXAMPLE.—"Full many A GEM of purest ray serene.”
Obs. 2.-One Numeral Adjective may qualify another Numeral.

EXAMPLES. ONE hundred dollars-.a hundred horses-FOUR score yeara -Two dozen oranges.

NOTE VIII.—A Substantive should correspond in form to the Number indicated by its Adjective, when the Adjective is necessarily Singular or Plural. EXAMPLES.—1. “The field is two miles long and one mile broad.”

2. These hands let useful skill forsake,

3. This voice in silence die." Obs. 1.-Exception. A few Nouns are used technically or figuratively in the Singular Number, with Plural Adjectives.

EXAMPLES.-A hundred head of cattle--fifty sail of the line.

POSSESSIVE SPECIFYING ADJECTIVES. RULE 8.- A Noun or a Pronoun in the Possessive Case is used Adjectively.

EXAMPLES. — Webster's Dictionary-Our neighbor.

Obs. 1.—The Possessive Case is a term applied by grammarians, with reference to the form of Nouns and Pronouns. Nouns and Pronouns in this Case, do not always indicate possession; and they may be in the Nominative, the Objective, or the Independent Case.

EXAMPLES.

1. The pedaler deals in boys' caps and children's shoes.
2. “And they both beat alike-only, MINE was the quickest.”
8. “He is a friend of MINE, and lives next door to SMITH's.”
4. *THINE is the kingdom.”

a

N

Obs. 2.—The sign of the Possessive Case is not always annexed to the name of the Possessor.

(1.) It may be transferred to an attribute following the name of the possessor. EXAMPLES. — 1. The Pope of Rome's legate.

2. “Whether it be owing to the Author of nature's acting

upon us every moment.”—Bp. Butler. (2.) When two or more Possessives, immediately following each other, are alike applicable to the same word, it is attached only to the last. EXAMPLES.—1. George, James, and William's father.

2. A. S. Barnes and Co.'s publications.

OBs. 3.—But the sign of the Possessive should be repeated, (1.) When one Possessive is used to specify another. EXAMPLE.—Gould's Adam's Latin Grammar.

(2.) When the Possessives describe different things. EXAMPLE.—“Heroes' and Heroines' shouts confusedly rise."

NOTE I.--Possessive Adjectives describe Nouns and Pronouns, by indicating possession, fitness, origin, condition, etc., etc.

EXAMPLES

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1. Boys' caps...

Boys!” denotes the size of the caps 2. Webster's Dictionary. “ Webster's" denotes the author. 3. “ Heaven's immortal Spring shall yet arrive, 4. And man's majestic beauty bloom again,

Bright through the eternal year of Love's majestic reign.”Beattie. 5. “I heard of Peter's buying John's horse.”

REM.—I heard of a certain act—an act of which Peter was the agent -hence, it was Peter's act. The act is expressed by the word “buying”—hence, the word “Peter’s” limits the word "buying ;" and is, therefore, an Adjective.

The object of Peter's act is “horse.” The word “John's” is used to limit that object, not to a particular race, or color, or size, but to a particular condition. “John's,” therefore, describes “horse”-hence, it is un Adjective.

OBS. 1.--A Noun or a Pronoun in the Possessive Case, is often equivalent to an Adjective Phrase.

EXAMPLES.

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1. The people's will.....

.The will of the people. 2. Webster's Dictionary.

.A Dictionary written by Webster. 3. Boys' caps..

.Caps suitable for boys.
4. “He heard the king's command, ... The command of the king.
5. And saw that writing's truth.”....The truth of that writing.
Obs. 2.-—But they are not always equivalent.
EXAMPLES.—1. The love of virtue..... is not virtue's love.

2. The desire of leisure... is not leisure's desire.
Fience,

NOTE II.—Possessive Specifying Adjectives and Adjective Phrases should not be substituted the one for the other when they are not fully equivalent.

(See Examples above.)

OBs. 3. -The laws of interchange of Possessive Adjectives and their kindred Adjective Phrases are as follow:

(1.) When the Object of the Prepositional Phrase constitutes the Agent of an action, state, feeling, etc., implied in the Substantive limited, the Phrase and the corresponding Possessive Adjective are equivalent, and, therefore, interchangeable.

EXAMPLES

1. The people's WILL.....

. The will of the people. 2. The sun's RAYS.

.The rays of the sun. 3. Webster's last SPEECH.. ..The last SPEECH of Webster. (2.) When the Object of the Prepositional Phrase constitutes also the Logical Object of an action, state, feeling, etc., implied in the Substantive limited, the Phrase and the corresponding Possessive Adjective are not equivalent, and, consequently, cannot be interchanged.

EXAMPLES.

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Correct.—“The DOCTRINE of Divine sovereignty."
Incorrect.—Divine sovereignty's DOCTRINE.

(3.) When the Object of the Prepositional Phrase may be the Logical Subject or Logical Object of the action, state, etc., implied in the Sule stantive limited, the use of the Phrase generally occasions ambiguitý und is inadmissible without the addition of some other Element.

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