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Prin.-All Adjuncts of Substantives are to be parsed as Adjectives ; Adjuncts of Verbs, Participles, Adjectives, and Adverbs, are to be parsed as Adverbs.

Obs.—In addition to Grammatical Adjuncts, we have what may pro perly be called Logical Adjuncts. These are commonly Substantives, independent in construction, yet serving indirectly to limit or modify other Elements.

EXAMPLES.

1, PETER ihe Hermit resembled, in temperament, PETER the Apostle

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REM- ." Hermit” and Apostle” are Nouns, yet serve to distinguish the two men named “ Peter."

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REM.—That we mistake” limits the signification of the word “It.”

For further Observations on Logical Adjuncts, see “INDEPENDENT CASE." Part II., p. 85.

ADJECTIVES.

RULE 7.

- Adjectives belong to Nouns and Pronouns which they describe.

Obs. 1.-It should be remembered that any word whose most important office is to specify, qualify, or otherwise describe a Noun or a Pronovn, is, therefore, an Adjective. (See Def. 97.) A word which is sometimes or generally used as some other “part of speech,” may, in certain connections, be used Adjectively, and when thus used, it is an Adjective EXAMPLES.—An iron fence— Working oxen.

REM.—Every Adjective having its Substantive understood, becomes Pronominal (See Adjective Pronouns, p. 93.)

OBs. 2.-An Adjective may consist of a

Word.-The recitation hour has arrived.

Phrase. The hour for recitation has arrived.,

Sentence. The hour in which we recite has

arrived.

ADJECTIVE WORDS.

OBS. --Adjectives describe Substantives in two distinct methods:

(1.) As an ordinary epithet, in which the attribute is not asserted, but implied or assumed. EXAMPLES.—1. A sweet apple.

2. A few inhabitants.
3. “Night, sable goddess, from her ebon throne,

In rayless majesty, now stretches forth

Her leaden scepter o'er a slumbering world." (2.) By asserting the attribute with the aid of a Verb or a Participle EXAMPLES. —4. The apple is sweet.

5. The inhabitants are few.
6. The world is slumbering.
7. “This latter mode of expression falls short of the force

and vehemence of the former.”—Murray.

THE FORMS OF ADJECTIVES.

Rem. 1.- Many words in the English Language are, primarily, Adjectives.

EXAMPLES.-Hard-soft—sour-sweet-good-bad-old-young.
REM. 2.—But most words used as Adjectives, are Derivative Words
EXAMPLES.—Arabian—virtuous-hopefulmasterly.
Rem. 3.—Many Adjectives have the same form as the Noun.
EXAMPLES.— A silver pencil—a gold pen—a stone bridge.

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NOTE I.—That form of the Adjective should be used which is in accordance with reputable usage. EXAMPLES.—1. A gold pen--not a golden pen.

2. A silver pencil--not a silvery pencil.
3. Golden ears, though richly waving,

Must, in harvest, fall."

4. The silvery tide will leave thee." Obs. 1.—Two or more Adjectives are often used in common as Adjuncts of the same Substantive. EXAMPLES.-1. The tall dark MOUNTAINS and the deep-toned SEA.”

2. “A TEMPER, passionate and fierce,

May suddenly your joys disperse,

At one immense EXPLOSION." Rem.—But the same Noun rarely has more than one Specifying Adjective. (See Specifying Adjectives below.)

Obs. 2.-When two or more Adjectives belong to the same Noun they may

(1.) Severally qualify the Substantive only; or, (2.) One Adjective may belong to the Noun as modified by the other. EXAMPLES.-1. “He was a tall, athletic, vigorous man.”

2. “ Lamartine acted a conspicuous part in the late Frenci

Revolution." REM.—“Tall,” “ athletic," and "vigorous,” are Adjectives—each stana ing in the same relation to the Word “man."

“ French” describes or limits “Revolution;" “late” limits “French Revolution."

OBs. 3.—This construction should be distinguished from that in which the Adjective-and not the Adjective and the Noun combined—is modified by an Adverb.

EXAMPLES.—A very BEAUTIFUL flower. A long-neglected duty.

Obs. 4.-A Possessive Specifying Adjective may be limited by another Adjective. EXAMPLES.—“He heard the KING's command,

And saw that WRITING's truth”

(Soc page 246 )

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QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES.

COMPARISON.

Rt.-As things are equal or unequal, similar or dissimilar, we have words indicating those differences. Hence,

1. COMPARISON OF EQUALITY.

Obs. 1.—Two or more things, similar in any given quality, are compared by the use of the word As, placed before the latter term. EXAMPLE8.—1. John is As tall as James.

2. Warner is not so fair as Arthur.
3. “England can spare from her service such men as

him.Lord Brougham.

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OBs. 2.–The former term of the comparison of equality may

be

preccded by As or So, and sometimes by Such. (See Examples above.)

2. COMPARISON OF INEQUALITY.

NOTE II.-In Comparisons of Inequality, when but two things are compared, the former term requires an Adjective of the Comparative Degree. EXAMPLES.—1. “They are STRONGER than lions '-Taylor.

2. “Thou hast been WISER all the while than me.”—Southey

3. “Their instinct is MORE PERFECT than that of man," EXCEPTION.—Some good writers employ the Superlative. EXAMPLE.—“The largest boat of the two was cut loose.”—Cowper.

Obs. 1.—The second term of comparison is commonly introăuced by the word Than.

(See Examples above.)

OBS 2.—When the second term is a Substantive word, Than is a Preposition. EXAMPLES.—1. “She suffers hourly more than one."-Swift.

2. “Than whom, Satan except, none higher sat." -Miliun.

Obs. 3.—When the second term is a Sentence, Than is commonly • Relative Pronoun. EXAMPLES.--1. “Ile has more than heart could wish."

2. “And there are LOVELIER flowers, I ween,

Than e'er in Eastern lands were seen." (For other Observations on Than, see “ Conjunctions.")

Obs. 4.—The second term of a Comparison may be suppressed, when the sense is not thereby obscured. EXAMPLES.-1. “We both have fed as well.”

2. “I have known deeper wrongs.”—Mitford.

NOTE III.-Adjectives of the Superlative Degree are used when more than two things are compared.

EXAMPLES.—1. “The richest treasure mortal times afford is spotless

reputation."
2. “Thou art the ruins of the noblest man

That ever lived in the tide of time.”

Obs. 1.—Comparative and Superlative Adjectives require different constructions.

(1.) The Comparative Degree requires the former term to be excluded from the latter.

EXAMPLE.--Iron is more valuable than all other metals.

Rem.—In this example, " Iron” is put as one term of comparison, and all other metals” as the other term—two things are compared. Hence, the Comparative form.

(2.) The Superlative Degree requires the former term to be included in the latter.

EXAMPLE.—Iron is the most valuable of all the metals.

REM.—Here “all the metalsare taken severally. “Iron” is taken from the list, and put in comparison with the many others—more than two things are compared. Hence, the use of the Superlative form.

Obs. 2. —Adjectives whose significations do not admit of comparison, should not have the Comparative or the Superlative form.

EXAMPLES. ---John's hoop is much more circular than mine.
Corrected.—John's hoop is much more nearly circular than mine.

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