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RULE 6.—A Noun or a Pronoun, not dependent on uny other word in construction, is in the Independent Case.

REM.—As the grammatical Subject of a Sentence is limited to the Nominative Case of Nouns and Pronouns, so the Nominative Case is properly limited to the Subject of a Sentence. Hence the term “Nomi. gative Case Independent” is inappropriate.

NOTE I.—The name of a person or thing addressed is in the Independent Case. EXAMPLES.—1. “FRIENDS. ROMANS, COUNTRYMEN.”

2. “ Come, gentle SPRING—ethereal MILDNESS, come.". Obs. 1.-In the last example the word thou, understood, is the proper subject of “come.” The words “spring” and “mildness” are addressed, and are independent in construction.

NOTE II.-A Noun or a Pronoun, used to explain a preceding Noun or Pronoun, is in the Independent Case. EXAMPLES.—1. Paul, the APOSTLE, wrote to Timothy.

2. “Up springs the lark, shrill-voiced and shrewd,

The MESSENGER of morn."

Obs. 1.—This Note applies also to Phrases and Sentences.
EXAMPLES.—1. It is our duty to STUDY.

2. “ It is possible that WE HAVE MISJUDGED.”
3. “I shall be dignified with this high honor-TO BEAR

MY LADY'S TRAIN," (See p. 236.)

OBs. 2.-An Independent Noun or Pronoun is properly a logical Adjunct when it is used to describe or limit another word.


REM.—“ Apostlo” describes “Paul,” by limiting the application of that name to a particular individual.

NOTE III.-A Noun or a Pronoun, used as the Leader of an Independent Phrase, is in the Independent Case. EXAMPLES.-1. The nour having arrived, we commenced the exercises

2. “Thus talking, hand in hand, alone they passed

On to their blissful bower."

Note IV.-A Noun or a Pronoun, used in Predicate with a Verb, is in the Independent Case. EXAMPLES. -“Thou art a scholar.It is I. “God is love."

“He maketh the storm a calm.CBs.—A Noun or a Pronoun used in Predicate, may have the form oi the Nominative or the Objective Case. EXAMPLES.—“I thought it to be him; but it was not him."

“It was not me that you saw.” REM.--This idiom is established by good authority-ancient and modern-and grammarians can not well alter the custom.

“Nescire quid acciderit antequam natus es, est semper esse puerum.” “ Not to know what happened before you was born, is always to be

a boy.” Here, “puerum” (boy), has the form of the Accusative Case (Objeotive), and can not be the Nominative.

NOTE V.-A Noun or a Pronoun, used for Euphony, is in the Independent Case.

EXAMPLE.—"The moon herself is lost in heaven.".

Obs.—In this Note are properly included Nouns and Pronouns repeated for the sake of emphasis.

EXAMPLE.—"This, this is thinking free.”


NOTE VI.-A Noun or a Pronoun denoting the Subject of remark—the title of a book-used in address, or in exclamation, etc., is in the Independent Case. EXAMPLES.—-1. “Our Fathers ! where are they! and the Prophets / de

they live forever?”

Wright's Orthography.
3. “Davies' Mathematics."
4. J. Q. Adums, Quincy, Maos.

2. “

Adverbial Sentences are often elegantly condensed into Independent Phrases.


Sentence.— When the hour had arrived, we commenced the exercises. Phrase.The hour having arrived, we commenced the exercises.

REM. 1.-—“When the hour had arrived” is a Grammatical Atljunct of “commenced,” an Adverbial Sentence. Hour" is the subject of that Sentence: hence in the Nominative Case.

2. “The hour having arrived,” is a Logical Adjunct of “commenced,' an Independent Phrase. Hour" is the Leader of that Phrase: hence in the Independent Case.

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Obs. 7.—By a custom not to be recommended nor allowed, except by “poetic license,” an Independent Phrase is sometimes preceded by a Preposition, which does not indicate a relation, nor properly connect it to an Antecedent. EXAMPLES.—1. “With arm in arm, the forest rose on high,

And lessons gave of brotherly regard." 2. “UPON our horse becoming weary, we procured lodgings

at a private house." REM. 1.-—“With” is not necessary to the grammatical construction of the Sentence-its affix being simply to preserve the rhythm.

2. The use of “upon” is unnecessary and improper.


1. O Absalom! my son, my son!
2. Lend me your songs, ye nightingales !
3. How is it possible not to feel grateful for such benefits !
4. Other things being equal, we prefer a fruit-growing climate.
6. Thou art the ruins of the noblest man

That ever lived in the tide of time.
6. Henceforth I never will be Romeo.
7. John dislikes to be called an idle boy.
8. That little indiscretion made him my enemy.
9. His teeth they chatter still.
10. Love and love only is the loan for love.
11. My friendsdo THEY now and then send

A wish or a thought after me? 12. HIE is the free run whom the truth makes freo.


PRIN.—Adjuncts belong to the words which they modify or describe.


Obs. 1.-Adjuncts may consist of Words, Phrases, or Sentences
EXAMPLES.-1. A Word.—We were walking homeward.

2. A Phrase.—We were walking towards home.
3. A Sentence.-“Let me stand here till thou remember it."

Romeo. NOTE I.-In the use of Adjuncts, that form should be employed which will most fully convey the sense intended.

Obs. 1.—Many Adjunct Words, Phrases, and Sentences are interchangeable.


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Word Adjuncts.—1. “An honest Man is the noblest work of God."

2. “ Dark days are remembered."
3. “The wind's low siga."

4. James CAME to school early.
Phrase Adjuncts.—5. A man of honesty is the noblest work of God.

6. Let him remember the days of darkness.
7. The low sign of the wind.

8. James CamE to school at an early hour. Sentence Adjuncts.—9. A MAN who is honest, is the noblest work of God

10. Days which are dark, are long remembered.
11. The low sigh which the wind seems to make.
12. James Came to school while it was yet early.

Obs. 2.-But this interchange of Adjuncts is not always admissible.



Correct.—“The TIME of my departure is at hand.”
Incorrect. My departure's TIME is at hand. (See Obs. 3, p. 245)

OBY. 3.—Adjuncts are often Complex. One Adjunct Word may qualified or limited by another Word. EXAMPLES. TWO HUNDRED dollars.

The Uruu's deep voice. The wini's low sigl.

UBs. 4.--An Adjunct Word may be limited by a Phrase.
EXAMPLES. -—" From the shore, Eat into caverns, by the restless wave."

“Wisdom is too high for a fool.
OBs. 5.-An Adjunct Word may be limited by a Sentence.

EXAMPLES. — “He called so loud that all the hollow deep resoundedh"

Ort as the morning dawns should gratitude ascend."

(See Diagram, p. 42, and Diagram 3, p. 44.)

OBs. 6.-An Adjunct Phrase may be limited by a Word.
EXAMPLE_Robert went almost to Boston. (See Diagram.)

Obs. 7.-An Adjunct Sentence may be limited by a Wordo
EXAMPLES.—“Not as the conqueror comes,

They the true-hearted came.”


OBs. 1.-Adjuncts may be attached to any of the five Elements of Sentences.

1. To the Subject. ..1. “The KING [of shadows] loves a shining mark."

(See Diagram, p. 39.)
2. ld the Predicate... 2. “And [when its yellow luster smiled

O'er mountains yet untrod],
Each mother HELD aloft her child
To bless the bow of God.

(See Diagram, p. 62.)
8. To the Object......3. “One ink-drop, on a solitary thought,

Hath moved the MIND of millions."

(See Diagram.) 4 To the Adjective.... 4. “The truly VIRTUOUS man is not REGARDLESS of

his reputation."

(See Diagram)
To the Adverb.....5. “Wisdom is too high for a fool."

(See Diagram.)

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