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Obs. 4.—You was formerly limited to the Second Person Plural, but is now used in the Second Person Singular and Plural. Its Verb is commonly in the Plural form. EXAMPLES." You are come too late.”

You have accomplished your object. OBS. 5.—But it has sometimes a Singular form. EXAMPLES. —“On that happy day when you was given to the world.”

Dod's Man “ When you was here comforting me.”Pope.

" Why was you glad!”—Boswell's Life of Johnson.
OBs. 6.—The Pronoun "it" often has an Indefinite or undeterminer
Antecedent; and may then represent any Gender, Person, or Number.
EXAMPLES." It snows." “ It rains."

“It was my father.
• It was the students.
“A pleasant thing it is, to behold the sun."
“If ever there was a 'people's man,' in. the true sense, it

was Dr. Chalmers." ---B. B. Edwards.

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NOTE IV.—Pronouns of different Persons, used in the same connection, should have their appropriate position.

Obs. 1.-The Second Person is placed first—the Third next, and the First last.

EXAMPLE. --You and Jan and I have been invited.

OBS. 2.-But when a fault is confessed, this order is sometimes re versed.

EXAMPLE—“ I and my people have sinned.”

OBs. 3.—This position obtains also when we acknowledge a defeat or a common calamity. EXAMPLE.—“Then I and you and all of us fell down,

Whilst bloody Treason flourished over us.”

NOTE V.-The Pronoun " themshould not be used Adjectively.

Incorrect.—Bring me thein books.
Correct.—Bring me those books.



Obs. 1.-A Relative Pronoun always performs a double office, and is used,

1. Substantively
EXAMPLE.-He studies, will improve.

“Who” relates to "he," and is the Subject of studies—hence, a Stubstantive.

2. Conjunctively-introducing an Adjective Sentence.
EXAMPLE-He who studies, will improve.
“Who studies,” is a Sentence used to describe "he.”
“Who" introduces the Sentence-hence it is used Conjunctively.

Obs. 2.- Who and whom are applied to man, and to other intelligent beings; which, to things; that, to persons or things. EXAMPLES.—1. “ He that attends to his interior self, has business."

2. “Too low they build, who build beneath the stars."
3. “ He wrom sea-severed realms obey."
4. “The books which I had lost have been returned.”

“ where is the patience now

That you so oft have boasted to retain P”--Lear, mi. 6. Obs. 3.—But the name of a person, taken as a name merely, or as a title, may be represented by the Relative which.

EXAMPLE.Shylock-wilicu is but another name for selfishness.

Obs. 5.—When the Relative what” is used substantively, it bears & part in the structure of two sentences at the same time. It is always equivalent to that which," or the things which.The Antecedent part may be the Subject (A) or Object (B) of a Principal Sentence, the Object (C) of a Phrase in that Sentence, or used in Predicate (D). The Consequent or Relative part introduces an Auxiliary Sentence, which qualifies the Antecedent, and may be the Subject (E) or Object (a) of that Sentence, the Object of a Phrase (u), or used in Predicate with a Verb (1). A B 1. “What reason weaves, by passion is undone."




2 •Deduct what is but vanity.”—Idem.



3. “ Each was favored with what he most de

lighted in."


4. “It is not what I supposed it to be."

OBs. 6.- What is sometimes a Simple Relative.
EXAMPLE.—“And what love can do, that dares love attempt." —Romeo.

Obs. 7.— Whoever, whosoever, whatever, whatsoever, and who (used for whoever), have a construction similar to what. EXAMPLES. — “Whatover purifies, fortifies also the heart."

Who lives to Nature, rarely can be poor;

Who lives to Fancy, never car be rich.”
OBs. 8.- What, which, whatever, and whatsoever, are often used Adjes
EXAMPLES.—1. “What book have you ?”

2. “Whatever object is most dear.”
3. “Whatsoever things are honest.”

Le "Which hope we have.”
Obs. 9. That is sometimes improperly used for the Relative what.
EXAMPLE.—“Take that is thine."
Obs. 10.– What is sometimes substituted for an Adverbial Phrase.
EXAMPLE.—“What [in what respect] shall it profit a manf”
Obs. 11.- What is sometimes used as an Exclamation.
EXAMPLE.—“What! Is thy servant a dog p”

Obs. 12.-The two words, but whatand also, but that-are sometimes improperly used for the Conjunction that. EXAMPLES.—“I did not doubt but what


would come." “ I did not doubt but that you would come.” Corrected.I did not doubt that you would come.

Obs. 13.—The Relatives than and as have Adjectives, or Adjective Pronouns, for their Antecedents.

As, when & Relative Pronoun, has for its Antecedent the word "such—used Adjectively, or as an Adjective Pronoun.

Than follows more, or some other Adjective, in the Comparative Degree.



“Nestled at his root
Is Beauty; such as blooms not in the glaro

Of the broad sun.”Bryant. 2. “We request such of you as think we overlaud the ode, to point out one word in it that would be better away.”— Wilson's Burns.

3. “He has less discretion than he was famed for having."
4. “Thero is more owing her than is paid.”—All's Well, i. 3.

REM.—Let it be remembered, that than and as are Substantives only when they constitute Subjects or Objects of Sentences. Most teachers would regard those words in the Examples above as thus used, but a rigid analysis of these sentences would require the ellipses to be supplied —then the words as and than would perform the office of Prepositions

Beauty such as [that which) blooms not, &c.
Less discretion than [that which] he was famed for having.


NOTE 1V.—The Position of Relative Pronouns should be such as most clearly to indicate their Antecedents.

Obs. 1.—When a Relative is the Subject or the Object of an Aux: dary
Sentence, it should be placed next its Antecedent.
EXAMPLES.—1. “Can all that optics teach unfold

Thy form to please me so p”
2. “The grave, that never spoke before,

Hath found, at length, a tongue to chide.”
EXCEPTION.—To this rule there are exceptions.

"O, they love least that let men know their love."Shakspeare. Obs. 2.-When the Relative is the Object of a Prepositional Phrase, it comes between its Antecedent and the Auxiliary Sentence with which that Phrase is construed.

EXAMPLE.—“We prize that most FOR WHICH we labor most."
REM.—“For which" modifies “labor"_" which” relates to "that.”

Obs. 3.—The Relative that, used as the Object of a Preposition, is placed
before the Preposition. Whom, which, and what, are placed after their
EXAMPLES.—1. “I have meat to eat that ye know not of.

2. “Withhold not good from them to whom it is due.” 3. The world in which we sojourn is not our home.”

4. “We could not learn for what he came." Obs. 4.—The Relative--whether the Subject or the Object of a Sentence, or the Object of a Phrase-can rarely be omitted with but weaken: ing the force of the expression.

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EXAMPLES.—1. “For is there aught in sleep [ ] can charm the wise f

2. “The time may come [ ] you need not fly.”

3. “It is a question [ ] I can not answer.” OBS. 5.-But the suppression of the Relative is allowed when the position of the words is such as to prevent ambiguity or weaken the expression. EXAMPLES. -1. “History is all the light we have in many cases; ana

we receive from it a great part of the useful truths

we have.”
2. “But they that fight for freedom, undertake

The noblest cause mankind can have at stake.”



NOTE V.-Interrogative Pronouns are construed like Personal Pronouns. EXAMPLES. — 1. As the Subject of a Sentence~ Who has the lesson !

2. As the Object of a Sentence-Whom seek ye?

3. As the Object of a Phrase--For what do we labor! Obs. 1.—The Interrogative force of such Pronouns is commonly supe pressed when they introduce Substantive Auxiliary Sentences. EXAMPLES.–1. We shall soon ascertain who has the lesson. 2. Ye still refuse to tell whom


serk. 3. We scarcely know for what we labor. Obs. 2.—But the Principal Sentence may remain Interrogative. EXAMPLES.-1. “ Who shall decide which shall have the premiuin ?"

2. How can you tell whom the teacher will reward?

3. By whom did you learn for whom I voted ? Obs. 3.—The word which answers a question has a construction similar to that of the word which asks it. EXAMPLES.—1. Whose book have you? Mary's.

2. How long was you going? Three days.
3. Where did you see him? In Rochester.

4. Whence came they? From Ireland. REM.—" Mary's” specifies “ book”—[during] "three days” modifier was gone”—“in Rochester" modifies “ did see"_“from Ireland” modi fies “came.”

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