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OBS. 2.--This construction is to be carefully distinguished from Complex Sentences, in which the Object Sentences are introduced by the Double Relative what.

EXAMPLES.-1. "But here I stand and tell what I do know."

2. "You have done what you should be sorry for."

3. "I can not tell what you think of this life."

REM. 3.-Here, "what I do know" is the modified Object of "tell."

OBS. 3.-By another construction, Auxiliary Sentences are placed after Predicates of Principal Sentences-not as Objects, but as Adjuncts of purpose, cause, &c.

EXAMPLES.-1. The pupil studies that he may improve.

2. "And I am glad that he has lived thus long;

3. And [] glad that he has gone to his reward.”

OBS. 4.-Another construction makes the Auxiliary Sentence a Logical Adjunct of a Substantive.

EXAMPLES." It is possible that we have

erred."

(See "Independent Case," and "Independent Sentence," in place.)

It

is possible

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"We had strong suspicions that Warner had the ring."

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Hence, "that Warner had the ring" is a logical Adjunct of " picions," and in the Diagram is placed under, but not attached to, "suspicions."

OBS. 5. Sometimes a Principal Sentence is thrown in between the arts of an Objective Sentence.

EXAMPLES.-1. "Whose charms, we thought, could never fade."

2. "This explanation, I doubt not, will satisfy him."

8. "But confidence, he added, is a plant of slow growth."

THE OBJECTS OF PHRASES.

REM.-Action is expressed by Verbs and by Participles. Relation is expressed by Prepositions. Hence,

OBS. 1.-The Object of a Verb or a Participle is the Object of an Action, and must be in the Objective Case.

EXAMPLES.

Verb in Predicate." He that GETTETH wisdom, LOVETH his own soul." Infinitive Verb.-"I came to BURY Cesar, not to PRAISE him." Participle.-"He could not avoid GIVING offense."

OBS. 2.-The Object of a Preposition is the Object of a Relation, indicated by the Preposition, and should be in the Objective Case.

EXAMPLES.-1. "The time of my departure is AT hand."

2. "FOR me your tributary stores combine."

3. "The boy stood on the burning deck,

Whence all BUT him had fled."

4. "THAN whom, Satan EXCEPT, none higher sat."

NOTE I-Nouns and Pronouns in the Objective Case, should have their appropriate forms.

EXAMPLES.-1. "Did you but know to whom I gave the ring."

2. "I call to thee with all my voice."

3. "It is not fit for such as us

To sit with rulers of the land."

EXCEPTION 1.-Rarely the Possessive form of Nouns and Pronouns in he Objective Case is used.

EXAMPLE-John is a friend of mine. (See p. 90.)

EXCEPTION 2.-Adjunct Sentences, introduced by the Conjunctions as, before, than, till, etc., are often contracted into Adjunct Phrases-the Subjects of the Sentences becoming the Objects of Phrases, often without a corresponding change of form. (See page 172.)

OBS.-The Objects of Phrases and Sentences may be Words, Phrases, or Sentences.

parsed:

OBJECTS OF SENTENCES.

Let the following Sentences be analyzed by the CHART, and

Word Objects.-1. "There thou shalt FIND my cousin Beatrice."-Shaks. 2. "His daring foe securely him DEFIED."-Milton. 3. "The broom its yellow leaf HATH SHED."-Langhorn. 4. "Did I REQUEST thee, Maker, from my clay,

To mould me man ?"-Milton.

Phrase Objects.-5. "We may AVOID talking nonsense on these subjects.” 6. "I DOUBTED their having it."

Sentence Objects.-7. "They SAY, 'This shall be,' and it is."

8. "Athens FOUND that neither art nor science could avail against depravity of morals.”

II. OBJECTS OF PHRASES-INFINITIVE.

Word Objects.-9. "How I love to SEE thee,

Golden, evening sun!"

10. "I come to BURY Cesar, not to PRAISE him.”

Phrase Objects.—11. “He endeavored to PREVENT our being tossed about by every wind of doctrine."

12. "It is difficult to DOUBT his having seen military

service."

Sentence Objects.-13. "This goes to PROVE what strange creatures we are.” 14. "The Governor commands me to say, that he has no further business with the Senate."

PARTICIPIAL

Word Objects.-15. "SCALING yonder peak, I saw an eagle." 16. "FINDING fault, never does any good."

Phrase Objects.-17. "By OPPOSING your going to college, your father abridged your usefulness."

Sentence Objects.-18. "The ceremonies concluded by the doctors' SAYING, 'Gentlemen, we will resume our studies at seven to-morrow.""

PREPOSITIONAL.

Word Objects.-19. "There came to the beach a poor exile or Erin.”

20. "You are a much greater loser THAN me by his

death."-Swift.

21. "The Jesuits had more interest at court THAN hin.”

22. "He suffers As them that have no hope."

Smollet

Maturin's Sermons.

Phrase Objects-23. "In the matter or making and receiving presen!s much discretion is required."

24. "I had no knowledge or there being any connection

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PAGE

QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW.

208.-Repeat RULE III.—Make Examples to illustrate it.

The Object of a Sentence may consist of what?.......See Obs. 1.
What Object Words are distinguished by their forms? .See Obs. 2.
What is the usual Position of the Object?

209.-Mention the Exceptions, and give Examples.

When may two or more words be Objects of the same Verb!

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 4 and 5.

When may they not both be Objects of a preceding Verb!
Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 6.

What Verbs may have direct and indirect Objects!

210.- Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 7.

What Passive Verbs may have Objects?

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 8.

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 9

211. Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 10. 212.-What Verbs have no Objects?..

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 1.

.See Note IV

What Verbs may be used Transitively or Intransitively!
Two Objects, one of a Verb and the other of a Preposition sup.
pressed, have what relative positions?

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 2.

What position have the Objects when the Preposition is expressed!

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 3.

213.-What Phrases may be Objects of Sentences }

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 1. 215.-Make a Sentence having a sentence Object.

GRAMMATICAL FALLACIES.

Let the Pupil correct the following Sentences, giving the proper authority for each correction:

1. "Let none touch it but those who are clean."-Sale's Koran. 2. "None but thou, O mighty prince, canst avert the blow."

3. "None but thou can aid us."

4. "No mortal man, save he, had e'er survived to say he saw."-Scott.

66

5. We are alone; here's none but thee and I."-Shakspeare.

6. "Good Margaret, run thee into the parlor."-Shakspeare.

7. "Ho loves he knows not who."—Addison.

PRONOUNS.

RULE 4.-A Pronoun must agree with its Antecedent in Person and Number.

NOTE I.-A Pronoun should have a Singular form, (1.) When it represents one Singular Antecedent. EXAMPLE-Henry was quite well when I last saw HIM.

(2.) When it represents two or more Singular Antecedenis taken separately.

EXAMPLE."The oil of peppermint, or any other volatile oil, dropped on paper, will soon evaporate; no trace of rr will be left."

NOTE II.-A Pronoun should have a Plural form,

(1.) When it has one Antecedent indicating Plurality. EXAMPLE. -Few-men are as wise as THEY might be.

(2.) When it has two or more Antecedents taken collectively.

EXAMPLE--Mary and Anna always accomplish what THEY undertake.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

NOTE III. The form of a Personal Pronoun should indicate its Person and Number.

OBS. 1.-The Pronouns I and we denote the person or persons speaking or writing "I," Singular-"we," Plural. But,

OBS. 2.-"We" is used in the Singular by Editors and Emperors.

FXAMPLES.-"We, Nicholas I., Emperor of all the Russias."

"We shall present ourself as candidate at the next election."

OBS 3.-Thou is used in Solemn Style to denote a person addressed, EXAMPLE." Thou lidst weave this verdant roof."

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