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DEF. 25.—A Participial Phrase is a phrase introduced by a Participle, having an Object or an Adjunct. EXAMPLES. —

Scaling yonder peak, I saw an eagle, wheeling near its brow.” DEF. 26.-An Independent Phrase is introduced by a Noun or a Pronoun, followed by a Participle depending

upon it.


EXAMPLES. — The cars having left, we chartered a coach.”

“Thus talking, hand [being] in hand, Alone they passed on to their blissful bower.”



Principal Elements, | Adjunct Elements.
DEF. 27.-The Principal Elements of a Phrase are the
words necessary to its structure.
EXAMPLES.—“Rays I of limpid light | gleamed | round their path.|

“Birds sang | amid the sprouting shade.” |
“Manhood is disgraced by the consequences of neglected

youth.” | DEF. 28.--The Adjuncts of a Phrase are the words used to modify or limit the offices of other words in the Phrase. EXAMPLES.—“Rays / of limpid light | gleamed | round their path.” |

“Birds sang | amid the whispering shade.” |
“See! Winter comes | to rule the varied year.” |
“With what an awful, world-revolving power,
Were first the unwieldy planets lanched along

The illimitable void.”
PRIN.—The Principal Elements of a Phrase consist of
The Leader,


The Subsequent DEF. 29.-The Leader of a Phrase is the word used introduce the Phrase-generally connecting its Subsequent to the word which the Phrase qualifies.

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EXAMPLES -Like a spirit | it came, I in the van 1 of a storm.” |

"Enough remains of glimmering light |

To guide the wanderer's steps aright.” | “The previous question being demanded, | the debate

closed," Obs. — The Leader of a Phrase is commonly the first word in position but not always; Adjuncts may precede. [See the last example.] PRIN.-The Leader of a Phrase may be

A Preposition, The Preposition to,
A Participle,

A Substantive.
EXAMPLES.—“I am monarch of all I survey;

My right there is none to dispute." Taking a madman's sword | to prevent | his doing mischief, I can not be regarded as robbing him l."

“The evening star having disappeared, I we returned to the castle.”

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DEF. 30.—A Participle is a word derived from a Verb, retaining the signification of its verb, while it also performs the office of some other "part of speech."

Obs. —For observations on Participles, see Part II.

DEF. 31.—The Subsequent of a Phrase is the Element which follows the Leader as its object of action or relation, or which depends on it in construction.

EXAMPLES.—At parting I, too, there was a long ceremony | in the hall |, buttoning up great-coats |, tying on woolen comforters | , fixing silk handkerchiefs over the mouth and up to the ears, and grasping sturdy walking-canes to support unsteady feet. PRIN.—The Subsequent of a Phrase may be, A Word, 1

A Phrase, A Sentence. EXAMPLES.—“Sweet was the sound, when oft | at evening's close |

Up yonder hill | Die village murmur rose." * A habit / of moving quickly l, is another way I of gaining time

“The footman, in his usual phrase,

Comes up with Mailum, dinner stays.'"

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OBs. 1.—The Subsequent of a Phrase is sometimes suppressed.
EXAMPLE.—“These crowd around, to ask him of his health.”

Obs. 2.-- When any Element of a Phrase is suppressed, that part of the Phrase which is expressed-whether Leader, Subsequent, or Adjunct~ 18 to be regarded as the representative of the whole Phrase, and, in the analysis of a Sentence, it should be construed as the whole Phrase would be if fully expressed. EXAMPLES.-1. “These crowd around," i. e., around him.

2. William will come home, i. e., to his home.

3. Mary has come to school early, i. e., at an early hour. Around,as an Element in the Phrase, is a Preposition.

Around,” as an Element in the Sentence, is an Adverb--for it is a mepresentative of an Adverbial Phrase.

Home,” as an Element in the Phrase, is a Noun.

Home," as an Element in the Sentence, is an Adverb--for it is a representative of an Adverbial Phrase.

* Early," as an Element in the Phrase, is an Adjective.

Early," as an Element in the Sentence, is an Adverbfor it is a representative of an Adverbial Phrase.


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REMARK.—As a Word is a physical representative of an idea, 80 a Sentence is a mechanical structure embodying a Preposition. A Sentence may be resolved into its Elements.

DEF. 32.The Elements of a sentence are the parts, which enter into its structure.

REM.-In the structure of Sentences, certain general principles are involved, which are common to all languages.

1. We have that of which something is declared. This is called the Subject of the Sentence,

2. There must be a word or words used to declare--positively, negatively, or interrogatively-something of the subject. This is called The Predicate.

These tw, parts are essential to the structur of a Sentanoa

3. The Predicates of some Sentences assert acts which pass over to an Object.

4. There are often other Elements, used to qualify, to limit, or to modify the various parts of Sentences. These are called Adjund Elements. PRIN.The Parts of a Sentence are distinguished sd

Principal Elements and
Adjunct Elements.

DEF. 33.—The Principal Elements of a Sentence are the parts which make the unqualified assertion. EXAMPLES.Birds flyThe sun shines.

“The night passed away in song."
“The mountains showed their


“Thy bounty shines in Autumn unconfined,

And spreads a common feast for all that live."
“The king of shadows loves a shining mark.”
“In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth."

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DEF. 34.-The Adjunct Elements of a Sentence are such as describe or modify other elements. EXAMPLES.--" The | night passed | away | in song.

The king of shadows | loves | a | shining mark.”
There I in his noisy mansion, / skilled to rule, |

The village i master | taught | his | little | school.” |
Lend me your songs, ye nightingales.”

O Liberty! I wait for thee.REM.—There are still other words, which are neither Principal Elements nor Adjuncts,—words which are sometimes used in connection with the Sentence, but which do not constitute an integral part of it. Hence,

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DEF. 35.—Words accompanying a. Sentence without entering into its structure, are called

Attendant Elements. EXAMPLES." Lend me your songs, ye nightingales |

* Jiberty! I wait for thee."

" There are no idlers here."
“I sit me down, a pensive hour to spend."
Even in our ashes live their wonted fires."
Friends, Romans, Countrymen ! lend me your ears"


PRIN.–The Principal Elements of a Sentence, wc,

The Subject, | The Predicate, | The Object. OBs. —Every Sentence must have, at least, one Subject and one Predrcure, expressed or understood.

DeF. 36.- The Subject of a Sentence is that of which something is asserted.

OBs.—The Sut'ect of a Sentence 18 a Noun, or a Word, a Phrase, or a Sentence used for Noun.


1. A Noun.-Birds fly—“ Knowledge is power.”

Truth crushed to earth, will rise again." 2. A Pronoun.- We come- - They are satisfied.

They that seek me early, shall find me." 3. A Phrase.To do good, is the duty of all men.

His being a minister, prevented his rising to civil puwer.' £ A Sentence." At what time he took orders, doth not appear.”

That all men are created equal, is a self-evident truth." DEF. 37.The Predicate of a Sentence is the Word or Words that express what is asserted of the subject.

OBS.—The Predicate consists of a Verb, with or without another Verb, ur'articiple, an Adjective, a Noun, a Pronoun, or a Preposition.


1. A Verb only.-Birds fly-Quadrupeds run

“Here sleeps he now alone.” 2 Two Verbs. We shall goI do remember.

“Ye shall not in the lofty pine

Disturb the sparrow's nest."

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