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GRAMMATICAL FALLACIES.

REM.—Let the Pupil correct the errors in the following Sentences, and give the authority for every criticism, by a proper reference tu RULE 2, or to Notes and OBSERVATIONs under the Rule.

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1 “The rapidity of his movements were beyond example.” — Wells. 2 “The mechanism of clocks and watches were totally unknown.”

Hume 3. “The Past Tense of these Verbs are very indefinite with respect to

time." —Bullion's Grammar, p. 31. 4. “Every body are very kind to her.Byron. 5. "To study mathematics, require maturity of mind.” 6. “That they were foreigners, were apparent in their dress.” 7. “ Coleridge the poet and philosopher have many admirers." 8. “No monstrous height, or length or breadth appear.”Pope. 9. Common sense, as well as piety, tell us these are proper.”

Commentary. 10. “Wisdom or folly govern us.”—Fisk's Grammar. 11. “Nor want nor cold his course delay.”Johnson. 12. “Hence naturally arise indifference or aversion between the par

ties." - Brown's Estimates. 13. “Wisdom, and not wealth, procure esteem.”—16. 14. “No company likes to confess that they are ignorant."

Student's Manual. 15. “The people rejoices in that which should cause sorrow.” 16. “Therein consists the force and use and nature of language.”Berkley. 17. “From him proceeds power, sanctification, truth, grace, and every

other blessing we can conceive.”-Calvin. 18. “How is the Gender and Number of the Relative known p”

Bullion's Practical Lessons. 19. “Hill and dale doth boast thy blessing.”—Milton. 20. “The Syntax and Etymology of the language is thus spread before

the learner.”Bullion's Grammar. 21. “In France the peasantry goes barefoot, and the middle sort makes

use of wooden shoes." —Harvey. 22. “While all our youth prefers her to the rest."— Waller. 23. “A great majority of our authors is defective in manner.”J. Brown. 24. “Neither the intellect nor the heart are capable of being driven.”

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25. “Nor he nor I are capable of harboring a thought against your

peace.” — Walpole. 26. “Neither riches nor fame render a man happy."--Day's Grammar. 27. “I or thou art the person who must undertake the business." -Murray: 28. “The quarrels of lovers is a renewal of love." 29. “Two or more sentences united together, is called a compound sen

tence.”Day's Grammar. 30. “If I was a Greek, I should resist Turkish despotism.”

Cardell's Grammar. 31. “I can not say that I admire this construction, though it be much

used.”—Priestly's Grammar, p. 172. 32. “It was observed in Chap. iii. that the disjunctive or had a doulle

use.”Churchill's Grammar. 33. “I observed that love constituted the whole character of God.”

Dright. 34. “A stranger to the poem would not easily discover that this was

verse.”—Murray. 35. “Had I commanded you to have done this, you would thought hard

of it.”—J. Brown. 36. “I found him better than I expected to have found him."

Priestly's Grammar. 37. “There are several faults which I intended to have enumerated.”

Webster. 38. “An effort is making to abolish the law.” 39. “The Spartan admiral was sailed to the Hellespont.”Goldsmith. 40. “So soon as he was landed, the multitude thronged about him."-16 41. “Which they neither have nor can do.”Barclay. 42. “For you have but mistook me all the while.”-Shakspeare. 43. “Who would not have let them appeared.”—Steele. 44. “You were chose probationer.” -Spectator. 45. “ Had I known the character of the lecture, I would not have went." 46. “They don't ought to do it.”— Watkins. 47. “Had I ought to place 'wise' in Predicate with makes' ?—Pupil. 48. “Whom they had sat at defiance.”Bolingbroke. 49. “Whereunto the righteous fy and are safe." —Barclay. 50. “She sets as a prototype, for exact imitation.”—Rash.

REM.—After correcting the above examples, the Pupil should analyze ind parse them using the MODEL given on p. 204-5, or that on p. 183-4.

III. The Object of a Sentence.

RULE 3.-—The Object of an action or relation must be in the Objective Case.

Subject

Predicate

Object

EXAMPLES.--1. “Virtue secures happiness.

2. Mary and Anna are writing letters.
3. Him from my childhood I have known.”

4. Them that honor me, I will honor.” Obs. 1.—The Object of a Sentence may be

1. A Noun.... Now twilight lets her curtain down,
2. A Pronoun. And pins it with a star.”
3. A Phrase....“I doubted his having been a soldier.
4 A Sentence “But Brutus says, he was ambitious.”

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(a) FORM OF THE OBJECT. Obs. 2.— The forms of Nouns do not distinguish the Objective Case from the Nominative or Subjective.

The Personal Pronouns and the Relative and the Interrogative who are the only Substantive Words that distinguish the cases by their forms.-- (See Declension of Pronouns, page 89.)---Hence,

Obs. 3.-In constructing Sentences, special attention is required is giving to the Object of a Sentence its appropriate position.

POSITION OF THE OBJECT.

NOTE.—In position, the Object of a Sentence commonly follows the Predicate. EXAMPLES.—1. “ Virtue SECURES happiness.

2. “The King of Shadows LOVES a shining mark.”
3. “In the beginning God CREATED the heaven and the

eurth."

EXCEPTION 1.—By the poets and for rhetorical effect, the Object is often placed before the Predicate. EXAMPLES.—1. Him, from my childhood, I HAVE KNOWN.”

2. “New ills that latter stage Await.”

3. “And all the air a solemn stillness Holds." EXCEPTION 2.-A Relative Pronoun, being the Object of a Sentence, is placed before its Predicate. EXAMPLES.-1. “The evil which he FEARED, has come upon him.”

2. “Mount the horse which I HAVE CHOSEN for you."
3. “We serve a Monarch whom we LOVE,

A God whom we ADORE.”

Two OR MORE OBJECTS.

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OBs. 4.-A Sentence may have two or more Objects when they are connected in construction by Conjunctions, expressed or implied. EXAMPLES.-1. “God CREATED the heaven and the earth."

2. Now twilight lets her curtain down,

And PINS it with a star." For the Angel of Death SPREAD his wings on the blasty

And BREATHED in the face of the foe as he passed.” REMARK.—These are Compound Sentences. In Sentence (1), “ heaven" and “earth” are Objects of the same Verb, "created.” In Sentence (2), “curtain” is the object of “lets,” and “it” is the Object of “pins.” Sentence (3) is also Compound; yet it has but one Object, “ breathed” being Intransitive.

Obs. 5.- The Objects of a Compound Sentence sometimes consist of different Words, indicating the same being or thing. EXAMPLES. — 1. “By this dispensation, we HAVE LOST a neighbor, a

friend, a brother." 2. “Thus she addressed the Father of gods, and King of

men.” OBs. 6. —But one Word used to limit the signification of another, cannot be in the same construction ; and hence, the two Words are not Objects of the same Verb, unless they are compounded and parsed 49 one Element. EXAMPLES.-1. We visited Naples, the home of our childhood.”

2. Have you seen COLERIDGE, the philosopher and poet i 3. “And must I leave thee, Paradise ?”

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Rem.Home” is a un, used to describe “Naples," not as an Adjective, but as an equivalent name of the same place.

Philosopher” and “poet" are Substantive appellations of the man, Coleridge."

Paradise" limits the application of the word “thee." (See “ Logical Adjuncts” and “Independent Case,” p. 85, Obs. 2, 3.)

Obs. 7.—The Verbs appoint, call, choose, constitute, create, dub, elect, make, name, and proclaim, sometimes have two Objects—one direct, and the other indirect.

EXAMPLES.—1. They named him Joan.

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REM.— In Example (1), “him” is the direct Object—"John”the remote Object; and is, logically considered, a part of the Predicate—a title acquired by the action expressed by the Verb. The Verbs above given do not, in such examples, express the full Predicate, nor have we Verbs that can, unless, perhaps, in the following example:

*They dubbed him KNIGHT.” Equivalent.—“They KNIGHTED him.

Obs. 8.—A Verb which, in the Actire Voice, is followed by a direct and a remote object, retains the remote object as a part of the Passive Predicate. EXAMPLES. -1. He is named John.

2. Rice was elected President. REM.—This construction is analogous to that of Substantive in Predi. cate with a Neuter Verb.

Thou art Peter-He is John. Thou art--what k--Peter. He is—what I-named John. The word “Peter" completes the Predicate; the words“ named John” complete the Predicate,

Obs. 9.—The construction noticed in Obs. 7 should be carefully dis linguished from that in which a Verb is followed by two Objects-one of the Verb and the other of a Preposition suppressed.

ExamPLE.—“They carried the child home."

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