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Est or st is added for the Second Person, solemn style; as, Thou walkest.

S is added for the Third Person; as, John walks.

In the Plural Number, Verbs are not varied to denote the Person of their Subjects.

NUMBER. NOTE I.—One Subject in the Singular Number requires its Verb to be in the Singular.


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Word Subjects ....1. “Earth keeps me here awhile."

2. “Man needs but little here below."
3. “KNOWLEDGE reaches or may reach every home."

4. “He leaps inclosures, bounds into the world.” Phrase Subjects ..5. “MY LEAVING HOME does not please you."

6. "TO DISPUTE THE DOCTOR requires fortitude.”

7. “HIS BEING A SCHOLAR entitles him to respect.” Sentence Subjects. .8. “THAT ALL MEN ARE CREATED EQUAL, is a self-evident

truth." 9. “HOW HE CAME BACK AGAIN, doth not appear.” 10. “That I HAVE TAKEN THIS OLD MAN'S DAUGHTER, is

most true.”

NOTE II.-Two or more Singular Subjects, indicating the same thing, require the Verb to be Singular.

EXAMPLE.The saint, the FATHER, and the AUSBAND prays.

NOTE III.—Two or more Singular Subjects, taken separately, require the Verb to be Singular.


Wowsl. Sub'ects....1. WILLIAM or WARNER has my knife.

2. “DISEASE or POVERTY follows the lazy track of the

3. “My POVERTY, but not my WILL, consents."

4. “Every PHRASE and every FIGURE which he uses

tends to render the picture more lively and complete.”Bluir.

Phrase Subjects ..5. “WRITING LETTERS or READING NOVELS occupies her

evening hours.”
6. “TO BE OR NOT TO BE, is the question.”

7. “To shoot OR BE Shot, was my only alternative." Sentence Subjects ..8. That my client aided in the rescue, or that he was

present at the time of it, does not APPEAR from the evidence adduced.”

NOTE IV.-A Collective Noun, indicating Unity, requires its Verb to be in the Singular Number. EXAMPLES.—1. “A NATION has been sinitten."

2. “The SENATE HAS REJECTED tbe bill.”
3. “ Congress has adjourned.”

NOTE V.–One or more Subjects of the Plural Number should have a Verb in the Plural.


Word Subjects....1. Woods and Groves are of thy dressing.”-Milton.

2. “They were forced to eat what never was esteemed

3. “Rules and PRINCIPLES are of the greatest possiblo

4. “WINGS were on her feet.”

NOTE VI.—Two or more Subjects of the Singular Number require the Verb to be in the Plural.


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Word Subjects. .l. "The vivacITY and SENSIBILITY of the Greeks seem to

have been much greater than ours.” 2. · Even as the ROEBUCK and the hart are eaten."--Bible.

3. "Hill and valley boast thy blessing.”Milton. Phrase Subjects. 4. To be wise in our own eyes, to be wise in the opinion

of the world, and to be wise in the sight of our Creator, are three things so very different as

rarely to coincide."--Blair. 6. “Chewing tobacco and smoking cigars disqualify a

young man for mental improvement.”Cutcheon.

6. “To spin, to weave, to knit, and to sew, were once

a girl's employments; But now to dress and to catch a beau, are all she

calls enjoyments.”—Lynn News. Senteno: Subjects..7 “Read of this burgess—on the stone appear, How worthy he !-how virtuous !-and how dear!"

Crabbe. 8. “That friendship is a sacred trust,

That friends should be sincere and just,

That constancy befits them,
Are observations on the case,
That savor much of commonplace,

And all the world admits them."

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NOTE VII.-A Collective Noun, indicating Plurality, requires its Verb to be in the Plural Number. EXAMPLES.-1. “The PEOPLE are foolish, they have not known me."

2. “For the people speak but do not write.” Obs. 1.-Collective Nouns, which always require a Plural Verb, are the following:

Gentry-mankindnobility-people-peasantry. Obs. 2.—Those which may have Verbs in the Singular or Plural, according to the sense, are the following :Aristocracy-army-auditory-committee-congress-church--meet

ing-public-school-remnant-senate. OBs. 3.—The Logical Subject of a Sentence is sometimes the Object of a Phrase used to qualify the Grammatical Subject. Then, when the Object of the Phrase is plural in form, and indicates that the parts of which the number is composed are taken severally, the Verb should be plural.

EXAMPLE.—A part of the STUDENTS have left.

Here “students”—the name of many taken severally—is the Logical Subject of “have left," and requires the Verb to be Plural, although “part,” the Grammatical Subject, is Singular.

OBs. 4.-When the Object of the Phrase is Singular, or the name of an aggregate number taken collectively, the Verb should be Singular.

EXAMPLE.—"Two-thirds of my hair has fallen off.”
Here “hair”—the name of many taken collectively—is the Logical

Subject of “has fallen,' and requires the Verb to be Singular, although "two-thirds,” the Grammatical Subject, is plural.

Obs. 5.—But Nouns not Collective are not varied in number by their
EXAMPLES.—1. “The progress of his forces was impeded.'— Allen

2. The selection of appropriate examples requires taste.
3. “All appearances of modesty are favorable and pre.



NOTE VIII.—Two or more Subjects, taken separately and differing in Person, should have separate Verbs, when the Verb is varied to denote the Person of its Subject.

EXAMPLE -- You Are in error, or I AM.

Obs. But when the Verb is not varied to denote the person, it need not be repeated. EXAMPLES.-1. You or I MUST GO.

2. The doctors or you are in error.
3. Was it thou?
4. It was the students.

NOTE IX.—When the Subject of a Verb differs in
Person or Number or both) from a Noun or Pronoun in
Predicate, the Verb should agree with its Subject rather
than with the word in Predicate.
EXAMPLES. -1. “Thou art the man."

2. “ Who art Thou?”
3. “The wages of sin is DEATH."
4. Clouds are vapor,
5. A HORSE is an animal.
6. “And hoary peaks that proudly prop the skies, thy

dwellings are.” Obs. 1.-—The young Pupil often finds it difficult to decide which of the two Substantives is the Subject and which the Noun in Predicate. The following test will decide this point:

When one term is generic and the other specific, the former belongs in Predicate--the latter is the Subject. Thus, in Example 5, “animal” is a generic termi—"horse” is specific. We cannot say, an animal is a horse, for not every animal is a horse; but every horse is an animal. Hence, "horse” is the Subject, and “ animal" is in Predicate.—(See Independent Case, p. 85, Obs. 5.)


NOTE X.-That Mode and Tense of a Verb should be used which will most clearly convey the sense intended.

Obs. 1.—A Verb used to denote a conditional fact or a contingency should have the Subjunctive or the Potential form. EXAMPLES. “WERE I Alexander, I would accept the terms."

“So would I WERE I Parmenio."

“If we would improve, we must study.” OBs. 2.—But if the condition is assumed as unquestionable, the Verb may be in the Indicative Mode. EXAMPLES.—“If thou hadst known.”

If John has offended you, he will make due apology.

NOTE XI.-That form of the Verb should be used which will most clearly express the time intended.

OBø. — In constructing Complex Sentences, the Tense of the Principal Sentence does not neces

cessarily control the Tense of the Verb in the Auxiliary Sentence. EXAMPLES.–1. “I said in my haste, all men are liars.”

2. "He has been so long idle, that he knows not how to

work." 3. “Copernicus first demonstrated that the earth revolves

upon its axis.”

4. “He called so loud that all the hollow deep res vended."
5. “Those that seek me early shall find me.”
6. “. And when we are parteil, and when thou art deadly

O, where shall we lay thee? his followers said."

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