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NOTE III.-In Position, the Subject Phrase commonly precedes its Predicate.

EXAMPLES.-1. To do good Is the DUTY of all men.

2. Managing the household affairs now CONSTITUTES the sum of my employments.

OBS. 1.-EXCEPTIONS.-The Subject Phrase sometimes follows its Predicate.

EXAMPLES. "The sure WAY to be cheated is to fancy ourselves more cunning than others."

REM. 1.-" To fancy ourselves more cunning than others," is the Subject. "Is way," is the Predicate.

REM. 2.-This position generally obtains, when the Indefinite Pronoun it is placed instead of the Phrase. "It" precedes, and the Phrase follows the Verb.

EXAMPLE. IT is the duty of all, to do good to others.

REM. 3.—In parsing Examples like these, the Phrase is to be regarded as explanatory of the Pronoun it-used to define the Indefinite Wordand is, in its office, analogous to a Word used to explain a preceding Noun. (See Independent Case, Obs. 2, p. 85.)


' That I have taken this old man's daughter, is most true."

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OBS. 1.-In Examples like the above we have two Sentences-one, Principal, the other Auxiliary or Subordinate. The Auxiliary Sentence is an Element in the Principal-the Subject, and should be parsed accordingly.

Thus, in the above Complex Sentence, the Principal Sentence is Simple, Intransitive, having one Subject-" Thar I have taken this old man's daughter;" one Predicate-" is true;" and one Adjunct—“ most.”

OBS. 2.-After an Auxiliary Sentence has been parsed, as one Element in its Principal Sentence, it should be analyzed by resolving it into its constituent Elements. Thus, in the Auxiliary Sentence given above, ... Introduces the Sentence: hence, a Conjunction.



..Is the Subject of its Sentence; hence, a Substantive. "Have taken”. Is the Predicate of its Sentence; hence, a Verb and





.Is an Adjunct of "man"['s]; hence, an Adjective. .Is an Adjunct of 'man"['s]; hence, an Adjective. .Is an Adjunct of "daughter;" hence, an Adjective. "Daughter"...Is the Object of “have taken ;” hence, a Substantive. OBS. 3.-The Subject Sentence is commonly-not always-introduced by the Conjunction "that." (See Examples below.)


NOTE IV.—A Subject Sentence is placed before its Predicate.

EXAMPLES.-1. "That we differ in opinion is not STRANGE.

2. "How he came by it, SHALL BE DISCLOSED in the next chapter."

OBS. 2.—EXCEPTIONS.—When the Pronoun it is substituted for a Subject Sentence, the Pronoun precedes, and the Sentence for which it stands is placed after the Verb.

EXAMPLES.-"It is probable that we shall not meet again.”

OBS. 2.-In parsing Sentences like the above, we are to parse "it" as the grammatical Subject of the Principal Sentence, and the whole Auxiliary Sentence as explanatory of the word “it”—a Logical Adjunct of "it." (See "Logical Adjunct," p. 29.)


Let the Class make Sentences, which shall be correct examples of the several Notes, Observations, and Remarks, under Rule 1.

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5. Thus star by star declines,

Till all are passed away;

6. As morning high and higher shines,
To pure and perfect day:

7. Nor sink those stars in empty night,

But hide themselves in heaven's own light."

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Friend,"..Subject of "departs," Simple Sentence, Departs,". Predicate of "friend," Intransitive. "After friend,"..Adjunct of " departs."

Principal Parts


Friend........Is a name,



.Hence, a Noun.

Name of a class of persons,... Hence, Common.

[The gender is not indicated; and, whenever it is not, no

mention of the gender should be made.]

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After friend..Modifies "departs"-denoting

time, or order of time, .......Hence, an Adverb.

After...... .Expresses a relation of "de

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Who......Is a Pronoun-Interrogative-Third Person-Singular Number-Nominative Case to "has lost."

"The subject of a Sentence must be in the Nominative Case. Has lost...Is a Verb-Irregular [lose, lost, losing, lost]-Transitive— Active Voice-Indicative Mode-Past Tense IndefiniteThird Person—Singular Number, to agree with its Subject "who."



.Is an Adverb-Negative-Modifies "has lost."
.Is an Adjective—Specifying--Specifies

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Friend.....Is a Noun-Common-Third Person--Singular Number-Objective Case to "has lost."


1. "Rewarding and punishing actions by any other rule, would appear much harder to be accounted for by minds formed as he has formed ours."--Bp. Butler.

2 "What time he took orders, doth not appear."-Life of Butler. 3. "That every day has its pains and sorrows, is universally expe rienced."

4. "My hopes and fears start up alarmed."

5. "Who shall tempt, with wandering feet,

The dark, unfathomed, infinite abyss ?" 6. " "Not a drum was heard, nor a funeral note," 7. "Not half of our heavy task was done." 8. "Few and short were the prayers we said." 9. "A chieftain's daughter secured the maid“ 10. "Her satin snood, her silken plaid,

Her golden brooch, such birth betrayed."

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REM. 1.—In a Sentence, it is the office of the Predicate to make the assertion. It declares existence, state, change, or an act, performed or received.

REM 2.—A Predicate may consist of one Word or of a combination of Words. If of one Word, it must be a Verb.

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It may also consist of two Verbs and one or more Participles, &c. We MIGHT HAVE WALKED-We MIGHT HAVE BEEN LOVED.

OBS. 1.-When a Predicate consists of more than one Word, the last constitutes the essential part of the Predicate. The other Words are Auxiliary, and are used to indicate Voice, Mode, Tense, and sometimes Person and Number. Thus, in the Sentence, "I may have been loved," the Word "loved" is the essential part of the Predicate:- been," is an Auxiliary, the principal office of which is to denote the Voice; "have," denotes the Tense; "may," denotes the Mode.


OBS. 2.-Every complete Predicate must have a Subject, expressed or understood.


RULE 2.-A Verb must agree with its Subject in Number and Person.

REM. This rule requires that the form of a Verb be determined by its Subject. Strictly speaking, Verbs have no Number and Person. The term is used to denote a variation in the form of a Verb to cor. respond with the Number and Person of its Subject. Thus,

In the Singular Number, no Suffix is used for the First Persou; as, I walk.

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