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REM.-Every Particular Grammar should include all the principles of General Grammar.

DEF. 5.—English Grammar is the science which investigates the principles, and determines the proper construction of the English language.

REM.—The articulate sounds of language are indicated by Letters.

DEF. 6.-A Letter is a character" used to indicate a sound, or to mollify the sound of another letter.

Obs.—For observations on the properties and offices of Letters, see APPENDIX, Note A.

REM.-Letters are combined to form Words.

DEF. 7.—A Word is a Letter, or a combination of Letters, used as the sign of an idea.

EXAMPLES. — God-mysteriousstoodslowly-Ah -by-and.
REM.- Words are combined to form Phrases and Sentences.

DEF. 8.-A Phrase is a combination of Words, not constituting an entire proposition, but performing a (listinct office in the structure of a Sentence or of another Phrase. EXAMPLES At midnight, in his guarded tent,

The Turk was dreaming of the hour,
When Greece, her knee in suppliance bent,

Should tremble at his power.
DEF. 9.-A Sentence is an assemblage of words, se
combined as to assert an entire proposition.
EXAMPLES. --1. Night approaches

2. Day is departing.
3. William is sleepy.
4. Socrates was a philosopher.
6. Virtue secures happiness.
6. Jon

veorge have arrived.
7. God created the heaven and the earth.
8. "The dying notes still murmur on the string."





REMARK.-In a Discourse, words are used

1. As Names of beings, places, or things;
2. As Substitutes for names or facts;
3. As Qualifiers or Limiters of Names;
4. To assert an act, being, or state;
5. To modify an assertion or a quality;
6. To express relations of things or of thoughts ;
7. To introduce or to connect Words and Sentences;
8. To express a sudden or an intense emotion; or,

9. For Rhetorical effect. nence, by their uses

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PRINCIPLE.— Words are distinguished as, 1. Nouns,

5. Adverbs, 2. Pronouns,

6. Prepositions, 3. Adjectives,

7. Conjunctions, 4. Verbs,

8. Exclamations, and 9. Words of Euphony.

DEF. 10.—A Word used as the name of a being, a place, or a thing, is called

A Noun. EXAMPLES.God-man---sea-way-wonders.

DEF. 11.-A Word used frun, is called

A Pronoun.

EXAMPLES. -1-thou-he-she-it-who-what--that.

DEF. 12.-A Word used to qualify, or otherwise describe a Noun or a Pronoun, is called

An Adjective.
EXAMPLES. --Mysterious (way)-his (wonders)—the sea.)

DEF. 13.—A Word used to assert an act, being, or state, of a person or a thing, is called

A Verb. EXAMPLES. – [God) moves--[He) plantsDay [declines]. ]

— DEF. 14.-A Word used to modify the signification of a Verb, an Adjective, or another Modifier, is called

An Adverb.
EXAMPLES. -—"A mist Rose slowly from the lake.”

“The task was exceedingly DIFFICULT.
“He came between us very oFt.”

DEF, 15.—A Word used to express a relation of words to each other, is called

A Preposition. EXAMPLES.-—" At MIDNIGHT in his guarded TENT,

The Turk WAS DREAMING of the HOUR."

DEF. 16.- A Word used to introduce a Sentence, or to connect Words and Phrases, is called

A Conjunction.
EXAMPLES.—“And I am glad that he has lived thus long."

God created the HEAVEN and the EARTH."

DEF. 17.—A Word used to express a sudden or ar intense emotion, is called

An Exclamation. EXAMPLES. — Alas boh!-shocking!

DEF. 18.- A Word used chiefly for the sake of sound, is called

A Word of Euphony. EXAMPLES. There are no idlers here."

“ Now, then, we are prepared to define our position."

Even in our ashes live their wonted fires. OBR. --- For observations on " Words of Friphurry," see Part 11.



REMARK.—Phrases are used as substitutes for Nouns, Adjectives, and Adverbs; or they are independent in construction. Hence, in respect of their offices, PRINCIPLE.— Phrases are distinguished as, 1. Substantive,

3. Adverbial, 2. Adjective,

4. Independent.


DEF. 19.- A Substantive Phrase is a phrase used as the
Subject or the Object of a Verb, or the Object of a Pre-
EXAMPLES. —" To be, contents his natural desire.”

His being a minister, prevented his rising to civil power.”
“I doubted his having been a soldier.
"The crime of being a young man, I shall attempt neither

to palliate nor deny."
What contents his natural desire"

To be,”-i. e., mere existence. “I doubted”- What ?

“His having been a soldier." “The criine of”— What?

“Being a young man.” OBS.-Substantive Phrases perform offices similar to those of Nouns and Pronouns.

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DEF. 20.-An Adjective Phrase is a phrase used to qualify or limit the application of a Noun or a?ancun EXAMPLES.-" The time of my departure is at hand.”

Forgetting the things that are behind, I press to. **16.
What “time”?—“Of my departure.”

“The dishes of luxury cover his table.”
What dishes ?--" Of luxury.”

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DEF. 21.-An Adverbial Phrase is a phrase used to modify the signification of a Verb, an Adjective, or an Adverb. EXAMPLES.—“God moves in a mysterious way.

"He is powerful for evil-impotent for gooch." “God moves"- How ?

“In a mysterious way.” “Powerful ”—In what respect ?

“For evil.”

DEF. 22.-An Independent Phrase is a phrase not grammatically connected with any other element.

EXAMPLES. — The hour having arrived, we commenced the exercises."

OBS.-An Independent Phrase performs an office in its sentence rather Logical than Grammatical. Thus, in the sentence, "The hour having arrived, we commenced the exercises,” the phrase "the hour having arrived,” indicates the time of commencing the exercises ; but it is not joined to the word "commenced” by any connecting word.



PRIN.—Phrases are distinguished also by their forms, 1. Prepositional,

3. Participial, 2. Infinitive,

4. Independent.

DEF. 23.-A Prepositional Phrase is a phrase introduced by a Preposition, having a Noun or a Substitute as its object of relation. EXAMPLES.—“ In a mysterious way.“ To me.”

• A habit of moving quickly is another way of gaining


DEF. 24.- An Infinitive Phrase is a phrase introduced by the Preposition to, having a Verb as its ohject of relation. EXAMPLES.--" To love-To studyTo be diligent."

“We ought not to be satisfied with present attainments." "I sit une down a pensive hour to spond.".

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