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A Prosóes,

VL THE PREDICATE is the Word er Words that assert something of the

Subject. VII. THE OBJECT of a Sentence is that on which the act expressed by the Predicate terminates.

A WORD, VIII. THE SUBJECT of a Sentence may be

A PARASE, or
IX. THE OBJECT of a Sentence may be A SENTENCE.
Der Make a Sentence having a Subject Word.

Make a Sentence having a Subject Phrase.
Make a Sentence having a Subject Sentence.

Coinmon or
A Noun,

Proper.
X. A Word used as the Subject or the

Personal,
Object of a Sentence may be

Relative,
, Interrogative

Adjective.
Make Sentences having for its Subject-
1. A Common Noun.

4. A Relative Pronoun.
2. A Proper Noun.

5. An Interrogative Pronoun. 3. A Personal Pronoun. 6. An Adjective Pronoun.

Masculine Gender, XI. Nouns and PRONOUNS are of the Feminine Gender, or

Neuter Gender.

First Person,
XII. Nouns and PRONOUNS are of the Second Person, or

Third Person.
XIII. Nouns and PRONOUNS are of the Singular Number, or

Plural Number.
Make Sentences having Nouns and Pronouns of the different

Genders, Persons, and Numbers.
XIV. THE SUBJECT of a Sentence is in the Nominative Case.
XV. THE OBJECT of a Sentence is in the Objective Case.

Another VERB,

A PARTICIPLE, XVI. THE GRAMMATICAL PREDICATES A VERB, with An ADJECTIVE of a Sentence is

or without

A Noun,
A Pronous, or

A PREPOSITION.
Make Sentences containing Examples of each variety of

Predicate mentioned.

{

3

{
{

Prior Past Tense,

Past Tense,
INDICATIVE Prior Present Tense,
MODE,

Present Tense,
Prior Future Tense,

Future Tense.

Prior Past Tense,
POTENTIAL

Past Tense,
XVII. A VERB in Predicate may

MODE, be in the

Prior Present Tense,

Present Tense.
SUBJUNCTIVE

Past Tense,
MODE

Present Tense.
IMPERATIVE

Present Tense.

MODE,
Make Sentences having Verbs in each of the Modes and
Tenses mentioned.

Person

and XVIII. A VERB in Predicate must agree with its Subject in

Number

PRIMARY
XIX. THE ADJUNCTS of a Sentence are

SECONDARY.
XX. PRIMARY ADJUNCTS are attached to the Principal Parts of a

Sentence or a Phrase.
XXI, SECONDARY ADJUNCTS are attached to other Adjuncts

WORDS,
XXII. ADJUNCTS may consist of Purases, or i

SENTENCES.
en Make Sentences containing Adjunct Words.

Make Sentences containing Adjunct Phrases.
Make Sentences containing Adjunct Sentences.

Compar

Superl.
Qualifying,

Posit.
Dimin.

or

[blocks in formation]

&c., dec.

SINTRANSITIVE OF TRANSIT"K XXIV. A SENTENCE may be SIMPLE or COMPOUND,

PRINCIPAL or AUXILIARI XXV. An INTRANSITIVE SENTENCE has ro Object.

Der Make an Intransitive Sentence.
XXVI. A TRANSITIVE SENTENCE has an Object.

De Make a Transitive Sentence.
XXVII. A SIMPLE SENTENCE has all its Principal Parts single

to Make a Simple Sentence. XXVIII. A COMPOUND SENTENCE has some of its Principal Parts com

pound.

Make a Compound Sentence.
XXIX. A PRINCIPAL SENTENCE asserts a Principal Proposition.
XXX. An AUXILIARY SENTENCE asserts a Dependent Proposition.

eso Make a Complex Sentence, and distinguish the Principal

Sentence from the Auxiliary Sentence. XXXI. CONJUNCTIONS introduce Sentences and connect Words and

Phrases. XXXII. A PREPOSITION shows a relation of its object to the word

which its Phrase qualifies. XXXIII. AN EXCLAMATION has no dependent construction. XXXIV. A WORD OF EUPHONY is, in its office, chiefly Rhetorical.

II. PHRASES,

XXXV. A Parase is a combination of Words not constituting an

entire proposition, but performing a distinct office in the structure of a Sentence or of another Phrase.

PRINCIPAL PARTS XXXVI A PHRASE consists of

and

ADJUNCTS. XXXVII, THE PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS of a Phrase are those words neces.

sary to its structure.

le Make s Phrase having Principal Elements only. XXXVIII. THE ADJUNCTS of a Phrase are words used to modify or

describe other words.
to Make a Phrase having Adjuncts.

The LEADER,
XXXIX. THE PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS of a Phrase are

The SUBSEQUENT

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a

XL THE LEADER of a Phrase is the word used to introduce the

Phrase-generally connecting its Subsequent to the Word

which the Phrase qualifies. XLI. THE SUBSEQUENT of a Phrase is the Element which follows

the Leading Word as its Object-depending on it for

sense.

or

a

Make Phrases and distinguish the Leaders from the Subsequent

Adjective) WORDS, XLII. The ADJUNCTS may consist of

Phrases, or

Adverbial | SENTENCES. Make Sentences having Adjective Words-Phrases

Sentences. XLIII. A PHRASE is

| TRANSITIVE or

INTRANSITIVE XLIV. A TRANSITIVE Phrase is one whose Subsequent (Infinitive

Verb or Participle) asserts an action which terminates on

an Object.

IF Make a Transitive Phrase; 1. Participial2. Infinitive. XLV. AN INTRANSITIVE Purase is one whose Subsequent is a Noun

or a Pronoun, or a Verb or a Participle having no Object.

Make an Intransitive Phrase; 1. Prepositional2. Par. ticipial—3. Infinitive--4. Independent.

PREPOSITIONAL XLVI. A Parase is, in form,

INFINITIVE, ɔr

INDEPENDENT. XLVII. A PREPOSITIONAL Purase is one that is introduced by a Prepo

sition-having a Noun, a Pronoun (Word, Phrase, or Sentence), or a Participle, for its object of relation.

Make a Prepositional Phrase. XLVIII. A PARTICIPIAL PHRASE is one that is introduced by a Participle,

being followed by an Object of an action, or by an Adjunct.

* Make a Participial Phrase. XLIX. An INFINITIVE Parase is one that is introduced by the Pi'epo.

sition to-having a Verb in the Infinitive Mode as its Object of relation.

Make an Infinitive Phrase. L AN INDEPENDENT Purise is one that is introduced by a Noun or a Pronoun--having a Participle depending on it.

Make un Inuleperulent Phrusc.

LL A PARASE is COMPOUND when it has two or more Leaders or

Subsequents.
leto Make a Compound Phrase-Compound Leaders-Com-

pound Subsequent
LII. A PHRASE is COMPLEX when one of its Principal Parts is

qualified by another Phrase.

lento Make a Complex Phrase. LIII. A Phrase is Mixed when it has one or more Transitive, and

one or more Intransitive Subsequents. e Make a Mixed Phrase.

REMARK 1.— Words combined into a Sentence, have a relation to each other—a relation which often determines their forms. The principal Modifications of words, as treated in Part II. of this work, are those of form—and these forms vary according to their relation to other words. Thus, in speaking of Frederick, I may say,

he assisted James.” Here “he” stands for the name of Frederick; and that forin of the Pronoun is used to denote that Frederick was the agent of the action-the Subject of the Verb. But if I say “him James assisted,” I make quite a different assertion, not because I speak of different persons or of a different act, but because I use a different modification of the word “he.”

But the form does not always determine the office of words in a Sentence. I may say, “Frederick assisted James,”

and “ James assisted Frederick." Here, although I use the same words and the same form of those words, I make two widely different assertions. The difference in the assertions in these examples is caused by the change of position of the Words Hence, the laws of AGREEMENT and ARRANGEMENT of words in the construction of Sentences.

Rem. 2.—As Diagrams are of great service in constructing Sentences, by serving as tests of the grammatical correctness of a composition, they are inserted in Part III. It is hoped that the Teacher will not fail to require the Class to write Sentences which shall contain words in every possible coudition, and in every variety of modification. Young Pepila should be required to place the Sentences in Diagrams.

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