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EXAMPLES.--"I can not but rejoice."
Equivalent.--I can not failomnit to rejoice.

Here “but” is a Verb, Potential Mode--and “rejoice" Verb, Infinitive Mode, depending on “but.”

But is also used instead of the words, if it were not.

EXAMPLE And but for these vile guns, he would himself wave been a soldier."

But sometimes supplies the places of a Relative Pronoun and a Negative Adverb.

EXAMPLE_“I scarce can meet a monument but holds my younger."

Equivalent.—1 scarce can meet a monument that holds not may younger. LIKE ... When this word qualifies a word, it is an Adjective, when it

represents its Noun, it is an Adjective Pronoun. But when it

shows a relation of two words, it is a Preposition. EXAMPLES.—1. “These armies once lived, and breathed, and felt like ve."

2. “ An hour like this, may well display the emptiness of

human grandeur.”
3. “Yet all great learned men, like me,

Once learned to read their A, B, C.”

THAN.... This word always expresses comparison, and comparison im

plies a relation. When this relation is expressed by Words, than is a Preposition. When it is expressed by Sentences, and when Words, Phrases, or Sentences are merely connected hy it, it is a Conjunction.

The use of it as a Preposition is sanctioned by good authority,

ancient and modern. EXAMPLES.—1. “They are stronger than lions."

2. “Thou shalt have no other gods than me.”—Com. Pr. 3. “But in faith, she had been wiser than me.”Southey. 4. “Their works are more perfect than those of men.”

Taylor. Than is also used as a ronoun, when it is the Subject or Object of a Verb; as- —“He does no more than is done by the rabbit.” “Than,” in this example, is the Subject of “is done,”—hence, a Pronoun. But, id this and similar examples, it may become a Preposition by supplying the ellipsis; as—" He does no more than [that which) is done by the rabbit.” This is probnbly the more correct reudering.

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Than always introduces a Word, a Phrase, or a Sentence, which con stitutes a second term of a comparison.

EXAMPLES.---1. “She is more nice than wise."
*Than” connects words, and is therefore a Conjunction.

2. Than whom none higher sat.”
"Than” introduces a Phrase, and is a Preposition.

3. “We have more than heart could wish." Than” is the object of “could wish,” and introduces the Adjective Sentence which limits “ more,” hence-by virtue of the ellipsis—it is a Relative Pronoun. Supply the words suppressed by ellipsis, and “than" becomes a Preposition.

Obs. 1.—Many words are used as Prepositions or Conjunctions, according as they introduce Phrases or Sentences. EXAMPLES.—John arrived before me.

John arrived before I did.
John arrived a little earlier than I (than mel.
John arrived a little earlier than I did.
John arrived as soon as I (as me].

John arrived as soon as I did. “Before me,”... Is a Phrase, used to modify “arrived;" hence, an Adverb. “Before,” Is a Preposition. “Before I did,” .Is a Sentence, used to modify “arrived;" bence, an

Adverb. “Before," .Is a Conjunction. " Than I," . Is a Phrase, used to modify “arrived;" hence, an Adverb. “Than I did,” . . Is a Sentence, used to modify “arrived;" hence, an

Adverb. “ As I,”. . Is a Phrase, used to modify"arrived;" hence, an Adverb. “ As I did,”

... Is a Sentence, used to modify “arrived;" hence an

Adverb. Obs. 2.–Of the many words thus used as Prepositions and Conjune. tions, custom allows two-as and than—to be followed by Pronouns in the Nominative form. EXAMPLES.-1. “Thou art wiser than I."

2. “Thou art as tall as I.” OBS. 3.—But the Objective form is also used by our best writers. EXAMPLES.-1. “It is not fit for such as us

To sit with rulers of the land.”— W. Scott

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2. “There are thousands in the French arny who could

have done as well as him.”—Napier. 3. “And though by Heaven's severe decree,

She suffers hourly more than me.”Swift. 4. “Than whom none higher sat.”—Milton.

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THAT... This word is primarily an Adjective. But it is also used as a

Pronoun; and, in consequence of the obscuriiy of an ellipsis (which may be generally supplied), it is often used as a Con

junction, EXAMPLE.—“He demanded that payment should be made.” This may be resolved into two sentences.

Payment should be made.

He demanded that.Here “That” is the object of “ demanded,” and is substituted for the whole of the former sentence. But as the sense is not obscured, and as a perplexing tautology is thereby obviated, I prefer to call it a Con. junction. It is commonly used to introduce an Auxiliary Sentenceand when it follows a Transitive Verb, the Auxiliary is the logical Object of the Phrase or Sentence.

WORTIL... Worth indicates value-and value implies a relation-and

relation of words is commonly expressed by a Preposition. EXAMPLE.—“ He possessed an estate worth five hundred pounds per

annum.” Equivalent.--"He has an annuity of five hundred pounds” This word is used also as a Noun.

EXAMPLE.—“He was a man of great worth." 80 ......The word so is commonly used as an Adverb; but it is often

used as a substitute for a Word, a Phrase, or a Sentence. EXAMPLES. —You are industrious not so.

John has become a good scholar

So I predicted.
It is sometimes a Conjunction used for if.
EXAMPLES. — “ I'll frown, and be perverse, and say thee nay,

So thou wilt woo."-Juliet.

Nor-composed of not and other-retains the offices of its elements

3. “Nor will I at my humble lot repine.” Here “nor”—being used to modify “repine”—is an Adverb of Negation. But, because it introduces a Sentence, additional to a former Sentence, it a Conjunction : like many other Conjunctions, it indicates the office of the Sentence which it introduces, making it negative.

Obs.-Some words perform an individual office, and at the same time i representalive office.


1. Bring hither that book.
2. Bring that book to me.
3. Bring me that book.

Equivalent sentences, each correct

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In the examples above,

“Hither,”....modifies “ bring.” Hence, it is an Adverb
“To me,”.

....modifies “bring.” Hence, it is an Adverb.
[To] “me,”...modifies “bring.” Hence, it is an Adverb.

“Me,” in the third example, as a representative for the Phrase (to me) of which it is a part, is an Adverb. But, being used for a Noun, it is a Pronoun; and, as the object of the Phrase, is in the Objective case.

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The captain had gone below.“Below,”.......shows a relation of “had gone” to deck understood.

Hence, it is a Preposition. "Below (deck)”.modifies “had gone” (denoting place). Hence, it is

an Adverb. “ Below,”. a representative of its (Adverbial) Phrase, modifies

" had gone” (denoting place). Hence, it is an Adverb. For farther illustrations, see Obs. 5 and 6, page 159; see also page 23, Obs. 1, 2.

REM.-A caref :1 examination of the genius of the English language will disch-se the fact, that a great majority of words perform at the same time two or more distinct offices. The Rule to be observed in parsing is, that a word should be parsed according to its PRINCIPAL iffice or she Sentence.

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REM.-In Part II. we have given attention to the discussion of WORIA consiilered as Elements of Language; embracing,

1. The Classification of Words, according to their offices.
2. The Modification of such Words as vary their forms to corre-

spond with changes in their offices. REM. 2.-We have now to consider the Relations of the various Elements of Language to each other, in the construction of Sentences.

DEF. 132. -Syntax treats of the construction of Sentences by determining the relation, agreement, and arrangement of Words, and of other Elements.




I. SENTENCES. 1. A SENTENCE is an assemblage of Words, so arranged as to express an entire proposition.

PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS II. A Sentence consists of


ADJUNCT ELEMENTS. III. THE PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS of a Sentence are those Words necessary

to make the unqualified assertion.

Der Make a Sentence having Principal Elements only.
IV. THE ADJUNCTS of a Sentence are the Words used to modify or

describe other Elements in the Sentence.
Make a Sentence having Adjuncts.



The OBJECT. Make a Sentence, and name the Subject, the Predicate, and the Object

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