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DEF. 131.—A Word used chiefly for the sake of sound, or to change the position, accent, or emphasis of other Words in a Sentence, is


A Word of Euphony. EXAMPLES.–1. “I think there is a knot of you,

Beneath that hollow tree." There" is used to allow the Predicate “is” to precede its Subject " knot.”

2. “I sit me down, a pensive hour to spend.” “ Me" is used to throw the accent on the word down."

3. “These were thy charms, sweet villagel sports like


With sweet succession, taught e'en toil to please.” “E'en" is used to make “toil” emphatic.


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Obs. 1.-Words of Euphony are such as commonly belong to some other “part of speech.” But they are properly called Words of Euphony when they do not perform their usual grammatical offices. They are, then, in their offices chiefly Rhetorical-being used,

(1.) To render other Words emphatic. EXAMPLES.—1. “Even in their ashes live their wonted fires."

2. “The moon herself is lost in heaven.” (2.) To change the position of the parts of a Sentence. EXAMPLES.—3. There are no idlers here."

4. “Now, then, we are prepared to take up the main

question.” (3.) To preserve the rhythm in a line of poetry. EXAMPLES.—5. “I sit me down a pensive hour to spend.”

6. “His teeth they chatter, chatter still.” REM. 1.—It is quite idle to call--as most grammarians do—the Word even, in Example (1), an Adverb, modifying “live;" for its sole office is to render the Phrase “ in their ashes emphatic. Such office is Rhetoricul, not Grammatical.


REM. 2.-To call the word “there,” in Example (3), an Adverb of Place,” is manifestly absurd; since the Verb “ are” is modified by the Adverb “here,” and hence cannot, at the same time, be modified by a Word of directly the opposite signification.

The same remark is also applicable to the worl then," in Ex ample (4)

REM. 3. —The Word me,” in Example (5), is in form of a Pronoun.

its office is to throw the accent on “down,” and on the first syllable In "pensive.” The Verb “sit,” is always Intransitive; hence it cannot

an object. The Word “me,” is therefore a Rhetorical Word-a Word of Euphony.

OBS. 2-Words are often transposed, lengthened, shortened, and in other wave changed for the sake of sound. (See “Euphony,” in Part IIL.)


Rem. 1.–Words are similar in Orthoëpy, when they are pronounced with the same sound of the same letter.

EXAMPLES.-—There, their-all, awl-ant, aunt.

REM. 2.—They are similar in Orthography when they are formed by the same letters, similarly arranged.

EXAMPLES.Read, read-ex'tract, extract' --wind, wind.

REM. 3.—They are similar in Etymology when they perform a similar office in the construction of a Phrase or a Sentence.


REM. 4.—But it is plain that words similar in Orilioëpy differ in their Orthography-and words of similar Orthography perform widely dif ferent offices in different connections.

It should always be remembered by the scholar that the OFFICE of a wurdnot its shapedetermines its Etymology.

Obs.--Among the Words of similar Orthography that differ in their Etymology are the following:

A,........ Adj.... Webster wrote a Dictionary - Walker wrote

4,..... .Prep. Wild winds and mad waves drive the vessel a wreck.
Above,. ...Prep.. ..He stands above us.
Above, ....Adv. .By the terms above specified.
After,. .Prep......He that cometh after me is preferred before me.
After,. .Conj.. .He came after you left.
After,..... Adj.... .He was in the after part of the ship.
As, .Prep.. .To redeem such a rebel as me.- - Wesley.
As, ...Conj...... Just as the twig is bent the tree's inclined.
As, . Adv. .Nature, as far as art can do it, should be imitated
As, .Pron... .Such as I have give I unto thee.
Before,. ...Prep.

..He stood before the people.
Before,. ...Conj.. . They kneeled before they fought.
Both,. .. .. Adj...... .Situated on both sides of the river.
Both, .Pron... .Lepidus flatters bothof both is flattered.
Both,. Conj... ..And now he is both loved and respected.
But, .Prep.. All but me were rewarded.
But, . Conj. . .I gobut I return.
.... Adv.

..... If we go, we can but die.
But, . . Verb.. .I cannot but rejoice at his unexpected prosperity.
Ere, .Prep... ... And ere another evening's close.


..... And ere we could arrive [at] the point proposed. For, . Prep.. .They traveled for pleasure.

.Conj.. .He can not be a scholar, for he will not study. Like, .Prep.. Nature all blooming like thee. Like, .. Adj... Like causes produce like effects. Like, ..... Verb..... We like whatever gives us pleasure. Near, .. Adj.... .At the near approach of the star of day. Near, ..Prep.. .We live near the springs. Near, ...Adv. .Books were never near so numerous. Neither, ... Adj.. .He can debate on neither side of the question. Neither, ... Pron... We saw neither of them. Neither,...

.Conj.. .The boy could neither read nor write. Next, .

. Adj.. . The next generation. Next, ..... Prep...... Adjectives should be placed next their substantives.


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Off, ..... Adj........

........The of ox should keep the furrow. Off,

.Prep.. William fell off the load.
Only, ... . Adj..... .Love and love only is the loan for love.
Only, ....Adv. Only observe what a swarm is running after her
Opposite, . Adj.. ...On the opposite bank of the river.
Opposite,. Prep... .....We stood opposite the Exchange.
Past,.....Adj. .A past transaction.
Past, .

.Prep.. . It was past mid-day
Round, ..Adj.. Like the round ocean.
Round, ..Prep.. .Flung round the bier.
Still, ...Adj.. .. Still waters reflect a milder light.

. Still struggling, he strives to stand.
Still, ..Conj.. . Still, the reflection has troubled me.
Since, ...Prep.. . Since yesterday, we have taken nothing.
Since, ... Conj... . Since I cannot go, I will be contented here.

..Adj.. . Solomon was wise-we are not so.

..Adv. . So calm, so bright.

.Conj.. “I'll say thee nay, 80 thou wilt woo."
Than, .Conj.. ..She is more nice than wise.
Than,. .Prep.. .Than whom none higher sat.
Than, .Pron.. We have more than heart can wish.
That, . Adj.....

.......That book is mine.
That, .Pron. Rel...“ Him that cometh unto me, I will in no wise cast

That, .Pron. Adj. .Forgive me my foul murder i that cannot be.
That, .Conj. .I am glad that he has lived thus long.

..Adv. Then, when I am thy captive, talk of chains.
Then, Conj.. .Then, I'll look up.
Then, .Pron....... Till then.
Till, Prep.. .They labored hard till night.
Till, ...Conj.... . Till I come, give attention to reading.
Until,. ...Prep.. .From morn, even until night.
Until,....Conj... .... Until the day dawn.
What, . Adj. At what hour did you arrive!
What, ... Rel. Pron... What Reason weaves, by Fassion is undone.
What, ... Inter. Pron.. What does it avail ?
What, ... Exclam..... What ! is thy servant a dog!
Within,. .Prep.

.To inscribe a circle within a circle.
Within, . . Adj.. Received on the within bond, five hundred dollara




As. ..... When this Word introduces a Sentence, it is properly called a

EXAMPLE.—“ As ye journey, sweetly sing.”

When it introduces a Phrase, it is a Preposition, and is then

generally equivalent to the Preposition for. EXAMPLES. — 1. "He gave me this as the latest news from the army."

2. “I am always fearful, lest I should tell you that for

news, with which you are well acquainted.” 3. “ For example." 4. “I mention these as a few exemplifications.” 5. “And melancholy inarked him for her own."--Gray. 6. “They will seek out some particular herb which they

do not use as food.”—- Taylor. 7. “His friends were counted as his enemies."-Sigourney.

8. “All mark thee for a prey.”—Cowper. The above examples clearly indicate that as is sometimes a Prepo sition.

Rem.—Many grammarians insist that as, in the above and similar examples, “ must be a Conjunction, because, in most cases, it connects words in opposition.

The same is true of other Prepositions.
EXAMPLES.—1. In the city of New York.

-thy shadowy hand was seen
Writing thy name of Death."-Pollock.
3. I took you for an honest man.

4. “And cries of_live forever !—struck the skies." We do not claim that these examples contain words precisely in apposition--as much so, however, as any cases claimed to be connected by as.

Asmis often used (by ellipsis of one or more words) as a Pronoun. [Soe Rem. on than below.]

bur. .... This word, like most Conjunctions, is derived from a Saxon

Verb signifying “except—"set aside”—“fail,” &c.—[See Web

ster's Improved Grammar.] In the list above given, the word retains its original signification and office

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