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WORDS OF EUPHONY.
DEF. 131.—A Word used chiefly for the sake of sound, or to change the position, accent, or emphasis of other Words in a Sentence, is
A Word of Euphony. EXAMPLES.–1. “I think there is a knot of you,
Beneath that hollow tree." “There" is used to allow the Predicate “is” to precede its Subject " knot.”
2. “I sit me down, a pensive hour to spend.” “ Me" is used to throw the accent on the word “ down."
3. “These were thy charms, sweet villagel sports like
With sweet succession, taught e'en toil to please.” “E'en" is used to make “toil” emphatic.
Obs. 1.-Words of Euphony are such as commonly belong to some other “part of speech.” But they are properly called Words of Euphony when they do not perform their usual grammatical offices. They are, then, in their offices chiefly Rhetorical-being used,
(1.) To render other Words emphatic. EXAMPLES.—1. “Even in their ashes live their wonted fires."
2. “The moon herself is lost in heaven.” (2.) To change the position of the parts of a Sentence. EXAMPLES.—3. “There are no idlers here."
4. “Now, then, we are prepared to take up the main
question.” (3.) To preserve the rhythm in a line of poetry. EXAMPLES.—5. “I sit me down a pensive hour to spend.”
6. “His teeth they chatter, chatter still.” REM. 1.—It is quite idle to call--as most grammarians do—the Word even, in Example (1), an Adverb, modifying “live;" for its sole office is to render the Phrase “ in their ashes emphatic. Such office is Rhetoricul, not Grammatical.
REM. 2.-To call the word “there,” in Example (3), an Adverb of Place,” is manifestly absurd; since the Verb “ are” is modified by the Adverb “here,” and hence cannot, at the same time, be modified by a Word of directly the opposite signification.
The same remark is also applicable to the worl then," in Ex ample (4)
REM. 3. —The Word “me,” in Example (5), is in form of a Pronoun.
its office is to throw the accent on “down,” and on the first syllable In "pensive.” The Verb “sit,” is always Intransitive; hence it cannot
an object. The Word “me,” is therefore a Rhetorical Word-a Word of Euphony.
OBS. 2-Words are often transposed, lengthened, shortened, and in other wave changed for the sake of sound. (See “Euphony,” in Part IIL.)
WORDS VARYING IN THEIR ETYMOLOGY.
Rem. 1.–Words are similar in Orthoëpy, when they are pronounced with the same sound of the same letter.
EXAMPLES.-—There, their-all, awl-ant, aunt.
REM. 2.—They are similar in Orthography when they are formed by the same letters, similarly arranged.
EXAMPLES.—Read, read-ex'tract, extract' --wind, wind.
REM. 3.—They are similar in Etymology when they perform a similar office in the construction of a Phrase or a Sentence.
REM. 4.—But it is plain that words similar in Orilioëpy differ in their Orthography-and words of similar Orthography perform widely dif ferent offices in different connections.
It should always be remembered by the scholar that the OFFICE of a wurd—not its shape—determines its Etymology.
Obs.--Among the Words of similar Orthography that differ in their Etymology are the following:
A,........ Adj.... Webster wrote a Dictionary - Walker wrote
..He stood before the people.
..... If we go, we can but die.
..... And ere we could arrive [at] the point proposed. For, . Prep.. .They traveled for pleasure.
.Conj.. .He can not be a scholar, for he will not study. Like, .Prep.. Nature all blooming like thee. Like, .. Adj... Like causes produce like effects. Like, ..... Verb..... We like whatever gives us pleasure. Near, .. Adj.... .At the near approach of the star of day. Near, ..Prep.. .We live near the springs. Near, ...Adv. .Books were never near so numerous. Neither, ... Adj.. .He can debate on neither side of the question. Neither, ... Pron... We saw neither of them. Neither,...
.Conj.. .The boy could neither read nor write. Next, .
. Adj.. . The next generation. Next, ..... Prep...... Adjectives should be placed next their substantives.
Off, ..... Adj........
........The of ox should keep the furrow. Off,
.Prep.. William fell off the load.
.Prep.. . It was past mid-day
. Still struggling, he strives to stand.
..Adj.. . Solomon was wise-we are not so.
..Adv. . So calm, so bright.
.Conj.. “I'll say thee nay, 80 thou wilt woo."
.......That book is mine.
..Adv. Then, when I am thy captive, talk of chains.
.To inscribe a circle within a circle.
OBSERVATIONS ON SOME OF THE FOREGOING WORDS
As. ..... When this Word introduces a Sentence, it is properly called a
When it introduces a Phrase, it is a Preposition, and is then
generally equivalent to the Preposition for. EXAMPLES. — 1. "He gave me this as the latest news from the army."
2. “I am always fearful, lest I should tell you that for
news, with which you are well acquainted.” 3. “ For example." 4. “I mention these as a few exemplifications.” 5. “And melancholy inarked him for her own."--Gray. 6. “They will seek out some particular herb which they
do not use as food.”—- Taylor. 7. “His friends were counted as his enemies."-Sigourney.
8. “All mark thee for a prey.”—Cowper. The above examples clearly indicate that as is sometimes a Prepo sition.
Rem.—Many grammarians insist that as, in the above and similar examples, “ must be a Conjunction, because, in most cases, it connects words in opposition.
The same is true of other Prepositions.
-thy shadowy hand was seen
4. “And cries of_live forever !—struck the skies." We do not claim that these examples contain words precisely in apposition--as much so, however, as any cases claimed to be connected by as.
Asmis often used (by ellipsis of one or more words) as a Pronoun. [Soe Rem. on than below.]
bur. .... This word, like most Conjunctions, is derived from a Saxon
Verb signifying “except—"set aside”—“fail,” &c.—[See Web
ster's Improved Grammar.] In the list above given, the word retains its original signification and office