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“On the plains,
And spangled fields, and in the razy vales,
The living throngs of earth before Him fall,
With thankful hymns, receiving from His hands

Immortal life and gladness.”
On ...Shows a relation of [existing ur derstood, which qualifies)

throngs” and “plains and fields.” Hence, a Preposition. In, ......Shows a relation of [existing understood, which qualifies]

" throngs” and “vales.” Hence, a Preposition. Of, ......Shows a relation of “throngs” and “earth.” Hence, a Prepo

sition. Before, ... Shows a relation of “fall” and “him." Hence, a Preposition. With,....Shows a relation of [worshipping, or some equivalent word

understood, which qualifies] “throngs” and “hymns.”

Hence, a Preposition. to Let the Pupils point out the Prepositions, with their several Antecedents and Objects, in the following



4. “The chief FAULT of Coleridge lies in the style, which has been justly objected to, on account of its obscurity, general turgidness of diction, and a profusion of new-coined double epithets.”

5. “Southey, among all our living poets, stands aloof, and alone in his glory;' for he alone of them all has adventured to illustrate, in poems of magnitude, the different characters, customs, and manners of nations.

6. To him, who, in the love of nature, holds

Communion with her visible forms, she speaks

A various language:

For his gayer hours
She has a voice of gladness, and a smile

And eloquence of beauty ;

And she glides
Into his dark musings, with a mild
And gentle sympathy, that steals away
Their sharpness, ere he is aware.

CONJUNCTIONS. Rem.-It should be remembered toat Prepositions connect words by showing a relation.

We have anotber class of Words, used simply to connect Words and Phrases similar in construction, and to introduce Sentences. Hence,

DEF. 129.-A Conjunction is a Word used to join Words or Phrases, or to introduce a Sentence.

EXAMPLE.—Mary and Anna have perfect lessons because they study diligently.

Rem. 1.-In this example, "and" connects“ Mary” and “Anna"two words having the same construction-and “because" introduces an Auxiliary Sentence.


Than, *






The following are the principal Words which are commonly used in
Conjunctions :
After, * Either,

Again, Else,


Except,* Nay,

Although, For,*



Thoughi, *
Furthermore, Now,

As well as,* Howbeit,


Because, * However, * Or,

Before,* Howsoever, * Otherwise,

Being, * If,*

Besides, Inasmuch as,* Since,*

Whilst, *


Lest, *

Rem. 2.-A few other words are sometimes used as Conjunctions.

REM. 3.—The words in the above List, marked thus (*), commonly introduce Auxiliary Sentences.

Obs. 1.-Conjunctions used to introduce Auxiliary Sentences and some others, constitute also an index or type of the office of the Seiz teuces which they introduce. EXAMPLES.--" If he repent, forgive him.”

"As you journey, sweetly sing."

While, *


In case,

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In these examples, “if” renders its Sentence conditional ::-"as" indieates that its Sentence (“you journey”) modifies “sing” in respect to time.

Notr. — When, as, since, and many other Conjunctions used to introduce Auxiliary Sentences, are called, by some grammarians, Conjunctive Adverbs. “ And the rest will I set in order when I come." We are told that “when,” in the above example, is an Adverb of Time, relating to the two Verbs, “will set” and “come.”

We are also told (and properly) that Adverbs of time are those which answer to the question when ?

But does “wlien,” in the above example, "answer to the question when ?” Certainly not. Then it cannot be an Adverb of Time. But the Auxiliary Sentence, “when I come,” does answer to the question " when.It tells when “I will set the rest in order.” Hence the Sentence, “when I come,” is an Adverb of Time; and the Word “when”-used only to introduce that Sentence-connecting it to "will set,” is a Conjunction. [See the preceding observation.]

OBs. 2.-A Word used chiefly to introduce a Sentence is therefore a Conjunction. If the Sentence introduced by it is Auxiliary Adverbial in office, it may properly be called an Adverbial Conjunction.

Let the Pupil remember that it is the Sentence that is Adverbial-not the Word used to introduce the Sentence.

Obs. 3.—The Conjunction nor generally performs a secondary officethat of a negative Adverb. EXAMPLE.—“Man wants but little here below,

Nor wants that little long.” In this example “nor” introduces the Sentence, and also gives it a negative signification. The Conjunction “lesť" has sometimes a similar construction.

“Love not sleep, lest thou come to poverty.” Obs. 4.-DOUBLE CONJUNCTIONS.—Two Conjunctions are sometimes used to introduce the same Sentence. EXANPLES "It seeins as if they were instructed by some secret


And yet, fair bow, no fabling dreams." As though, but that, and some other words, are often used as Double Conjunctions.

Obs. 5. But, when an Auxiliary Sentence precedes a Principal Sentence, the Conjunctions introducing them are not to be regarded as doublc, although they may be in juxta position.--[See this Obs.]

OBS. 6. In addition to those words properly called Conjunctions, we have other words used to introduce Sentences—as a secondary office. EXAMPLES.—1. “The grave, that never spoke before,

Hath found at length, a tongue to chide.” 2. “We are watchers of a beacon,

Whose light must never die.” REM. 1.—“That never spake before,” is an Auxiliary Sentence introduced hy the word that.

The principal office of " that is Substantive—the Subject of "spoke." Its secondary office is Conjunctive-introduces its Sentence and connects it with its Principal.

Rem. 2.-In Example (2), the Word “whose” has a Principal office Aajunct of “light” —and a secondary office-introduces its Sentence and connects it with its Principal.

[For other observations, the student is referred to Pașt III., CoxJUNCTIONS.]


God created the heaven and the earth.· And,”....Connects “heaven” and “earth.” Hence, a Conjunction.

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Temperance and frugality promote health and secure happiness.“ And,”....Connects “temperance” and “ frugality.” Hence, a Con

junction. “And,”....Connects “promote” and “secure.” Hence, a Conjunction.

And the eyes of the sleepers waxed deadly and chill.“ And," .Introduces a Sentence. Hence, a Conjunction. “And,”....Connects “deadly" and "chill.” Hence, a Conjunction.

And hoary peaks that proudly prop the skies

Thy dwellings are.” And,”. Introduces a Sentence. IIence, a Conjunction. "That,"... Is the Subject of “prop.” Hence, a Substantive.

It also introduces its Sentence, and connects it with “ peaks."

My heart is awed within me when I think
Of the great miracle that still goes on

In silence round me.” "When," .Introduces the Auxiliary Sentence. Hence, a Conjunction.

Its Sentence is Adverbial in its office. Hence, an Adverbial

Conjunction. “Wheris not an Element-i. e., it bears no part in the

structure of its Sentence. It is neither a Principal Part, nor an Adjunct; it primarily connects: secondarily, indi

cates the office of its Sentence. (See Obs. 1, above.) That,” .. Is the Subject of “goes.” Hence, a Substantive.

As a secondary office, “that” introduces its Sentence, and

connects it with “miracle.”


DEF. 130.—A word used to express a sudden or intense emotion, is

An Exclamation.
OBs. 1.-Exclamations may consist-

1. Of Letters—as, O! Oh! Ah! Lo!
2. Of Words—commonly used as Nouns, Adjectives, Verbs, and

Adverbs—as, Wol Strange ! Hark! Really! Behold.

3. Of Phrases-For shame!

4. Of Sentences—"0, Ephraim! How can I give thee up !OBS. 2.-Exclamations are followed by

Words—“O, Liberty I"--"Ah, the treasure!"
Phrases—“O, for a lodge in some vast wilderness!”

Sentences—" O, bear me to some solitary cell !” REM.—The term Exclamation is preferred to Interjection, as being vore appropriate to its office.

Exclaim-“to cry out.” This we do with the use of Exclamations.

Interject—"to cast between.” We very seldom cast these words between others--they are generally placed before other words.

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