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REM.-Every Particular Grammar should include all the principles of General Grammar.
DEF. 5.—English Grammar is the science which investigates the principles, and determines the proper construction of the English language.
REM.—The articulate sounds of language are indicated by Letters.
DEF. 6.-A Letter is a character" used to indicate a sound, or to mollify the sound of another letter.
Obs.—For observations on the properties and offices of Letters, see APPENDIX, Note A.
REM.-Letters are combined to form Words.
DEF. 7.—A Word is a Letter, or a combination of Letters, used as the sign of an idea.
EXAMPLES. — God-mysterious—stoodslowly-Ah -by-and.
DEF. 8.-A Phrase is a combination of Words, not constituting an entire proposition, but performing a (listinct office in the structure of a Sentence or of another Phrase. EXAMPLES At midnight, in his guarded tent,
The Turk was dreaming of the hour,
Should tremble at his power.
2. Day is departing.
veorge have arrived.
REMARK.-In a Discourse, words are used
1. As Names of beings, places, or things;
9. For Rhetorical effect. nence, by their uses
PRINCIPLE.— Words are distinguished as, 1. Nouns,
5. Adverbs, 2. Pronouns,
6. Prepositions, 3. Adjectives,
7. Conjunctions, 4. Verbs,
8. Exclamations, and 9. Words of Euphony.
DEF. 10.—A Word used as the name of a being, a place, or a thing, is called
A Noun. EXAMPLES.—God-man---sea-way-wonders.
DEF. 11.-A Word used frun, is called
DEF. 12.-A Word used to qualify, or otherwise describe a Noun or a Pronoun, is called
DEF. 13.—A Word used to assert an act, being, or state, of a person or a thing, is called
A Verb. EXAMPLES. – [God) moves--[He) plants—Day [declines]. ]
— DEF. 14.-A Word used to modify the signification of a Verb, an Adjective, or another Modifier, is called
“The task was exceedingly DIFFICULT.
DEF, 15.—A Word used to express a relation of words to each other, is called
A Preposition. EXAMPLES.-—" At MIDNIGHT in his guarded TENT,
The Turk WAS DREAMING of the HOUR."
DEF. 16.- A Word used to introduce a Sentence, or to connect Words and Phrases, is called
God created the HEAVEN and the EARTH."
DEF. 17.—A Word used to express a sudden or ar intense emotion, is called
An Exclamation. EXAMPLES. — Alas boh!-shocking!
DEF. 18.- A Word used chiefly for the sake of sound, is called
A Word of Euphony. EXAMPLES. “ There are no idlers here."
“ Now, then, we are prepared to define our position."
“ Even in our ashes live their wonted fires. OBR. --- For observations on " Words of Friphurry," see Part 11.
REMARK.—Phrases are used as substitutes for Nouns, Adjectives, and Adverbs; or they are independent in construction. Hence, in respect of their offices, PRINCIPLE.— Phrases are distinguished as, 1. Substantive,
3. Adverbial, 2. Adjective,
DEF. 19.- A Substantive Phrase is a phrase used as the
“ His being a minister, prevented his rising to civil power.”
to palliate nor deny."
To be,”-i. e., mere existence. “I doubted”- What ?
“His having been a soldier." “The criine of”— What?
“Being a young man.” OBS.-Substantive Phrases perform offices similar to those of Nouns and Pronouns.
DEF. 20.-An Adjective Phrase is a phrase used to qualify or limit the application of a Noun or a?ancun EXAMPLES.-" The time of my departure is at hand.”
Forgetting the things that are behind, I press to. **16.
“The dishes of luxury cover his table.”
DEF. 21.-An Adverbial Phrase is a phrase used to modify the signification of a Verb, an Adjective, or an Adverb. EXAMPLES.—“God moves in a mysterious way.”
"He is powerful for evil-impotent for gooch." “God moves"- How ?
“In a mysterious way.” “Powerful ”—In what respect ?
DEF. 22.-An Independent Phrase is a phrase not grammatically connected with any other element.
EXAMPLES. — “The hour having arrived, we commenced the exercises."
OBS.-An Independent Phrase performs an office in its sentence rather Logical than Grammatical. Thus, in the sentence, "The hour having arrived, we commenced the exercises,” the phrase "the hour having arrived,” indicates the time of commencing the exercises ; but it is not joined to the word "commenced” by any connecting word.
PRIN.—Phrases are distinguished also by their forms, 1. Prepositional,
3. Participial, 2. Infinitive,
DEF. 23.-A Prepositional Phrase is a phrase introduced by a Preposition, having a Noun or a Substitute as its object of relation. EXAMPLES.—“ In a mysterious way.” “ To me.”
• A habit of moving quickly is another way of gaining
DEF. 24.- An Infinitive Phrase is a phrase introduced by the Preposition to, having a Verb as its ohject of relation. EXAMPLES.--" To love”-“ To study”—“ To be diligent."
“We ought not to be satisfied with present attainments." "I sit une down a pensive hour to spond.".