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PREPOSITIONS.

DEF. 128.—A Word used to introduce a Phrase, showing the relation of its Object to the Word which the Phrase qualifies, is

A Preposition.

LIST.

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A,...... About, Above, . Across, Aboard, Aboard of, After,.. Against, Along, Amid, Amidst, Among, Amongst, Around, As, ..

“ Wild winds and mad waves drive the vessel a wreck."

We walked about town."
“There is a ferry above the falls.”
“ Across the ocean came a pilgrim bark.”

They came aboard ship.”
"We succeeded in getting aboard of her.”

“ He that cometh ofter me, is preferred before me.”
“He that is not for me, is against me.”
“Winds that run along the summits of their hills."
“We stowed them amid-ships."
Amidst the mists, he thrusts his fists.”
“He became a great favorite among the boys."
“We made diligent search amongst the rubbish.”
“The chill dews of evening were falling around me.”
“That England can spare from her service such mos

as him.”
“ It struck aslant the beam."
“He sat astride the beam."
.“ As for me and my

house."
As to that, I have nothing to say.”
“He was at work at noon."
"The dolphin leaped athwart her bows."
“He stood before the people.”
“She stood behind a rick of barley.”
“The captain was below decks.”
Beneath the mouldering ruins.”
Beside its embers, red and clear.”
“There was a famine in the land, besides the first

famine."
Between whom, perfect friendship has existea."
“There is no difference betwixt them."
"Beyond all doubt.”

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Aslant,
Astride,
As for,
As to,
At,
Athwart, .
Before,
Behind,
Below,
Beneath,
Beside,
Besides, ..

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Between..
Betwixt,
Beyond, ...

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Rut, ..... “ All went but me.”
Riit for,. “ And but for these vile guns."
By,...

“To sail by Ephesus.”—“They stood by the cross."
Concerning, “ Concerning whom I have before written.”
Despite of, “He will rise to fame, despite of all opposition.”
Devoid of, “You live devoid of peace.”
During,... “This has occurred many times during the year.”
Ere,

“ And ere another evening's close.” Except, .

Except these bonds." Excepting, Excepting that bad habit, the teacher was faultless." For,

For me your tributary stores combine.” Froin,

.“Playful children, just let loose from school.” From among,

From among thousand celestial ardors.”
From between, “He came from between the lakes.”
From off, “This lady-fly I take from of the grass.”
In,

In the beginning.”
Instead of, Instead of the thorn shall come up the fir.”
In lieu of, “She has that sum in lieu of dower.”
inio,..

Into these glassy eyes put light.” Like,

“ An hour like this may well display the emptiness of

human grandeur.” Near,...

“His residence is near the church.” Next,.

“Plural nominatives should be placed next their verbs " Nigh,

“Come not nigh me.” Notwithstanding, “Notwithstanding this, we remain friends." Of, ....

Of the arts of peace.” Off,

“He fell off the bows.” On,

On a bed of green sea-flowers." Opposite,.. “Our friend lives opposite the Exchange." Over,

High o’er their heads the weapons swung.” Out of,

Out of the cooling brine to leap.” Past,

“We came past Avon.” Per,

“Twelve hundred dollars per annum."
Previous to, Previous to this, his character has been good.”
Respecting, Nothing was known respecting him.”
Round,

“He went round the parish, making complaints." Since...

Since Saturday he has not been seen." Save,

“ All, save this little nook of land.” Saving

* With habits commendable, swing only this — he

chews tobacco.

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Through,........"Dian's crest floats through the azure air."
Throughouty. “ Nor once, throughout that dismal night.”
Than,.

Than whom none higher sat.”
Till,

“He laboured hard till noon." To,...

“We purpose to go to Rochester to-day.” Touching, Touching these things, whereof I am accused." Towards,

They returned towards evening.”
lnder,... “ Then was my horse killed under me."
Underneath, “ And underneath his feet, he cast the darkness."
Cuike,

Unlike all that I had ever before seen." Until,

“ We shall not return until Saturday.” Unto,

Unto him who rules the invisible armies of eternity Up,

“The whole fleet was sailing up the river.” Upon,

He stood upon the highest peak.” Via,

,“ This stage is for Buffalo, via Batavia.” With,

With cautious steps and slow.” Within,

Peace be within these walls." Without,

Without it, what is man?” Worth,

“ He possessed an estate, worth five thousand pounds."

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Obs. 1.-The antecedent term of relation—the word which the Phrase, introduced by a Preposition, qualifies, may be a

Noun.—The house of God.
Pronoun.- Who of us shall go? I care not which of you.
Adjective. It is good for nothing.
Verb.—We love to study, we delight in improvement.
Participle.Jumping from a precipice.

Adverb.--He is too wise to err.
Obs. 2.—The antecedent term of the relation expressed by a Prepo-
sition, is sometimes understood.
EXAMPLES.~1.

“O refuge Meet for fainting pilgrims [ ] on this desert way.” NOTE.—In the above and similar examples, the ellipsis of the antecedent word need not be supplied in parsing, unless the sense plainly requires it. But the Phrase may be parsed as qualifying the word which its Antecedent would qualify, if expressed.

2. “Which flung its purple o'er his path to heaven.Jlere the Phrase “to heaven” properly modifies leading, or a word of similar uffice, understood. But “leading,” nodified by this Phrase, would qualify “path.” Hence the Phrase, “to heaven”–

'-as a representative of the whole Phrase "leading to heaven”—may be attached to path.

OBs. 3. – Prepositions introducing Substantive and Independent Phrases, have no Antecedents. EXAMPLES. -1. As for me and my house, we will serve the Lord.”

2. “And, on the whole, the sight was very painful.”—Todd.

3. “O for a lodge in some vast wilderness.” —Cowper. OBS. 4.—The Consequent term of relation may be,

A Word.—“He stood before the people.
A Phrase.—“Time, spent in receiving impertinent visits.
A Sentence.—“And cries of 'live for ever,' struck the skies.”

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Obs. 5.- The Consequent term of relation-Object-is sometimes un derstood. EXAMPLES.—"And the waves are white below [ ].”.

“These crowd around [ ] to ask him of his health.” Many grammarians call these Prepositions Adverbs, without giving a proper explanation. They are Prepositions, having their Objects understood. But, as the Phrases of which they form parts are always used Adverbially, the Prepositions--as representatives of their Phrases--are Adverbs. Hence, when thus used, each Preposition performs a double office-Prepositional, as leader of the Phrase-Adverbial, as representative of the Phrase.

OBs. 6.—The Preposition is often understood-generally when its Phrase follows Verbs of giving, selling, coming, &c. EXAMPLES.—1. Mary gave [ ] me a rose-Mary gave a rose to me.

2. I sold [ ] Mr. Shepard my wheat-sold wheat to

Shepard. & William has gone from home to-day-he will come [ ]

home to-morrow.”

4. These crowd aroi nd. Mary gave me a rose. - Me" and "around” are—in the same sense, and by the same ruleAdverbs, viz: as representatives of the Adverbial Phrases to which they beverally belong. As words, simply, “me” is a Pronoun-object of to. understood: “around" is a Preposition-showing a relation of "crowd" and him, understood.

Obs. 7.—Prepositions are sometimes incorporated with their Objects EXAMPLES. -I go a fishing.--He fell u-sleep.Como a-bourd.

Obs. 8.—Prepositions are sometimes used in predication with Verbs EXAMPLES.—1. Its idle hopes are o'er.

2. That was not thought of. Obs. 9.-A Preposition commonly indicates the office of the Phrase shich it introduces.

In, on, under, above, &c., indicate a relation of place, including the idea of rest.

in the hall, EXAMPLES. - William's hat is on the stool,

under the table. From, to, into, through, out of, &c., indicate a relation of place, with the idea of motion.

from New York, EXAMPLES. - We came to Boston,

through Springfield. Of, generally indicates a relation of possession. EXAMPLE.—“The lay of the last minstreľ—the last minstrel's lay.

As, like, than, &c., indicate a relation of comparison.
EXAMPLES.-1. “It is not fit for such as us

To sit with rulers of the land,"-W. Scott.
2. All great, learned men, like me,

Once learned to read their A, B, C.”.

3. “Thou hast been wiser all the while than me."-Southey During, till, since, &c., indicate a relation of time. EXAMPLES.-1. “We have vacation during the whole month of July."

2. Since Saturday, we have not seen him.” But, as the kind of relation expressed by a given Preposition is no uniform, no perfect classification can be made.

For other observations on Prepositions, see Part III.- Prepo sitions.

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EXERCISES.

1. Where streams of earthly joy exhaustless rise. Of, ...Shows a relation of “streams” and “joy,” Hence, a Preposition

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2.

O refuge,

Meet for fainting pilgrims.For,. .Shows a relation of “meet” and “pilgrims.” Hence, a Preposition

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