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CLASSIFICATION OF ADVERBS.
REM.—The classes of Adverbs are very numerous. The following are the most important:
I. OF THE FORMS OF ADVERBS. Obs. 1.—Some Words are used almost exclusively as Adrerbs; such are Primitive Words.
OBs. 2.—But most Words used as Adverbs are Derivative Words—their Radicals being commonly used as Nouns or ás Adjectives.
1. From Nouns.-Always--nightly-hourly-aloft-ashore.
2. From Adjectives.— Brilliantly-rightly-softly-virtuously. Obs. 3.—Many Words, commonly used as Nouns, Adjectives, Prepc sitions, &c. beceme Adverbs by representation or substitution. EXAMPLES.–1. William rises early”–
?-at an early hour.
[See page 23, Obs. 2.]
II. OF THE FUNCTIONS OF ADVERBS. PRIN.—Adverbs are commonly divided into two primary classes :
1. Adverbs of Manner, and
2. Adverbs of Circumstance. . DEF. 126.--Adverbs of Manner are those which answer to the question How ? OBS. 1.-Adverbs of Manner are ch as indicate
1. Affirmation.--Aye-certainly-doubtless--surely-verily, &c.
OBS. 2.-Phrases and Sentences often indicate the manner of an act.
Phrases.—1. God moves in a mysterious way.”
The still and pulseless world.”.
5. “There are departed beings that I have loved as 1
never again shall love in this world.”
DEF. 127.--Adverbs of Circumstance are such as ask oi answer the questions When? Where? How much? Why? -indicating Time, Place, Degree, Cause.
I. OF TIME. REM.—All Words used to ask or to answer the questions “When ?" or “How often ?” are properly called Adverbs of Time. EXAMPLES.—1. Present.-Instantly-now-presently—yet, &c.
2. Past. Already — heretofore-hitherto-lately-yes.
terday, &c. 3. Future.—Henceforth-hereafter-soon, &c. 4. Absolute. --Always—ever-never, &c. 5. Repeated.—Continually—often-rarely-sometimes, &c.
OBs. 1.-Phrases and Sentences also perform the office of Adverbs
Phrases.-1. “In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth.”
2. “The Christmas rose is in bloom during the month of
The Turk was dreaming.”
5. “I think of the friends who had roamed with me there
When the sky was so blue, and the flowers were so fair.'. 6. “Ye that keep watch in heaven, as earth, asleep,
Unconscious lies, etfuse your mildest beams.”
II. OF PLACE. Obs. 2.-All Words used to ask or to answer the questions Where! Whither/ or Whence? are classed as Adverbs of Place. EXAMPLES.–1. In a Place.-Here-there-where? &c.
2. To a Place.—Hither-thither-whither &c.
3. From a Place.--Hence—thence-whence ? &c. OBS 3.-Most Adverbs of Place are in the form of Phrases.
in the cars,
from Boston, EXAMPLES. - We came through Springfield,
to New York,
viâ Norwalk. And many in the form of Sentences. EXAMPLE.-" Where wealth and freedom reign, contentment fails.”
Obs. 4.-Words which answer to the questions, “How much ? How far ? To what extent ?—are classed as Adverbs of Degree.
EXAMPLES.—Altogether-hardly-little-much-quite-merely — too -very, &c.
OBs. 5.-Words used to ask or to answer to the questions, Why?
MODIFICATION. PRIN.-Some Adverbs are modified, like Adjectives, by comparison.
Pos. Comp. Superl. 1. By use of Suffixes.. ..Soon, ....Sooner,... . Soonest.
“ Auxiliary Adverbs.. . Wisely,. . More wisely.. Most wisely
In a moment,
5 Let the Adverbial Words, Phrases, and Sentences, in the follow ing Examples, be pointed ;ut and parsed after the following
1. “E'en now, where Alpine solitudes ascend,
I sit me down, a pensive hour to spend ;
Now..... . Modifies “sit”-denoting time; hence, an Adverb.
} Modifies “ sit”—denoting place ; hence, an Adverb. Down..... Modifies “sit”—denoting place; hence, an Adverb. A pensive hour to Modifies “ sit”–denoting cause ; hence, an Adverb.
spend,... On high,.. .Modifies “placed”-denoting place; hence, an Adverb Above the storm's Modifies “placed—denoting place; hence, an Adverb
| Downward, . Modifies “look”-denoting place; hence, an Adverb. Where a hundred realms appear, .
} Modifies “look”–denoting place ; hence, an Adverb.
“Earth keeps me here
On fairer wings than thine, to skies more clear.”
(“On fairer wings than thine,” is the Modified Adverb.) Than thine,.. Modifies “fairer”—denoting degree; hence, Adverb of De
gree. To skies, . . Modifies “rise”-denoting place; hence, Adverb of Place.
(“To skies more clear,” is the Modified Adverb.) More,.... .Modifies "clear"--denoting degree; hence, Adverb of Degree.
3. “How much better satisfied he is !” flow, .Modifies “much ;" hence, an Adverb. Much,. . Modifies “better;" hence, an Adverb. Better, .Modifies “satisfied;" hence, an Adverb.
Obs. 1.—Let it be remembered that the term “Adverbs” is applied to a distinct element in the structure of Sentences--that the function of that element may be performed by a single Word or by a combination
of Words, constituting a Phrase or a Sentence. In analyzing Sentences containing these three distinct forms of the Adverbial Element, we proceed according to the Models given above. But,
OBs. 2.—The Words composing an Adverbial Phrase or Sentence have also their distinct individual offices. Thus, the Adverbial Phrase “ Above the storm's career,” consists of a Preposition, (above)—an Adjec tive, (the)-an Adjective, (storm's)--a Noun, (career).
So also the Adverbial Sentence, “Where a hundred realms appear," consists of a Conjunction, (where)-an Aljective. (a)--an Adjective, (hun dred--a Noun, (realms)—and a Verb, (appear). Hence,
Obs. 3.—In Proximate Analysis, it is sufficient to discuss the Elements of Principal Sentences ; while, in Ultimate Analysis, each separate Word composing an Element, is to be parsed separately.
Passes." 5. “How is it possible not to feel a profound sense of the responsiblos
ness of this Republic to all future ages.”
From hill to field, from field to grove,
And left the footsteps of a God.”
Pealed their first notes to sound the march of Time, 10. Thy joyous youth began-but not to fade,
When all the sister planets have decayed :
And Heaven's last thunder shakes the world below, 11. Thou, undismayed, shalt o'er the ruins smile,
And light thy torch at Nature's funeral pile!"