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CLASSIFICATION OF ADVERBS.

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REM.—The classes of Adverbs are very numerous. The following are the most important:

I. OF THE FORMS OF ADVERBS. Obs. 1.—Some Words are used almost exclusively as Adrerbs; such are Primitive Words.

EXAMPLES.—Ever-here-now-not-then-there.

OBs. 2.—But most Words used as Adverbs are Derivative Words—their Radicals being commonly used as Nouns or ás Adjectives.

EXAMPLES

1. From Nouns.-Always--nightly-hourly-aloft-ashore.

2. From Adjectives.— Brilliantly-rightly-softly-virtuously. Obs. 3.—Many Words, commonly used as Nouns, Adjectives, Prepc sitions, &c. beceme Adverbs by representation or substitution. EXAMPLES.–1. William rises early

?-at an early hour.
2. “You have come too late—at too late a day.
3. Warner will come home-to his home.
4. “He will return to-morrow"- --on the morrow.
5. “The captain had gone below"--below deck.
6. “Is the agent within ?"-within the house.

[See page 23, Obs. 2.]

II. OF THE FUNCTIONS OF ADVERBS. PRIN.—Adverbs are commonly divided into two primary classes :

1. Adverbs of Manner, and

2. Adverbs of Circumstance. . DEF. 126.--Adverbs of Manner are those which answer to the question How ? OBS. 1.-Adverbs of Manner are ch as indicate

1. Affirmation.--Aye-certainly-doubtless--surely-verily, &c.
2. Doubt.---Perchance-perhaps-possibly, &c.
3. Mode.-Aloud-asunder-how-o-together—thus, &c.
4. Negation –Nay-lot.

OBS. 2.-Phrases and Sentences often indicate the manner of an act.

EXAMPLES.

Phrases.—1. God moves in a mysterious way.
2.

“Silence now
Is brooding like a gentle spirit o'er

The still and pulseless world.”.
3. “Omar had passed seventy-five years in honor around

prosperity.
Sentences.-4. “He died as he liveda devotee of mammon.”

5. “There are departed beings that I have loved as 1

never again shall love in this world.”

DEF. 127.--Adverbs of Circumstance are such as ask oi answer the questions When? Where? How much? Why? -indicating Time, Place, Degree, Cause.

I. OF TIME. REM.—All Words used to ask or to answer the questions “When ?" or How often ?” are properly called Adverbs of Time. EXAMPLES.—1. Present.-Instantly-now-presently—yet, &c.

2. Past. Already — heretofore-hitherto-lately-yes.

terday, &c. 3. Future.—Henceforth-hereafter-soon, &c. 4. Absolute. --Always—ever-never, &c. 5. Repeated.—Continually—often-rarely-sometimes, &c.

OBs. 1.-Phrases and Sentences also perform the office of Adverbs

of time.

EXAMPLES.

Phrases.-1. “In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth.”

2. “The Christmas rose is in bloom during the month of

January.”
3. At midnight, in his guarded tent,

The Turk was dreaming.”
Sentences.—4. “And as Jesus passed by, he saw a man who was blind."

5. “I think of the friends who had roamed with me there

When the sky was so blue, and the flowers were so fair.'. 6. “Ye that keep watch in heaven, as earth, asleep,

Unconscious lies, etfuse your mildest beams.”

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II. OF PLACE. Obs. 2.-All Words used to ask or to answer the questions Where! Whither/ or Whence? are classed as Adverbs of Place. EXAMPLES.–1. In a Place.-Here-there-where? &c.

2. To a Place.—Hither-thither-whither &c.

3. From a Place.--Hence—thence-whence ? &c. OBS 3.-Most Adverbs of Place are in the form of Phrases.

in the cars,

from Boston, EXAMPLES. - We came through Springfield,

to New York,

viâ Norwalk. And many in the form of Sentences. EXAMPLE.-" Where wealth and freedom reign, contentment fails.”

Obs. 4.-Words which answer to the questions, How much ? How far ? To what extent ?—are classed as Adverbs of Degree.

EXAMPLES.—Altogether-hardly-little-much-quite-merely — too -very, &c.

OBs. 5.-Words used to ask or to answer to the questions, Why?
Wherefore? &c., are classed as Adverbs of Cause.
EXAMPLES. Accordingly—consequently--hence – therefore, where.

fore, &c.
“Let others brave the flood in quest of gain."

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MODIFICATION. PRIN.-Some Adverbs are modified, like Adjectives, by comparison.

EXAMPLES.

Pos. Comp. Superl. 1. By use of Suffixes.. ..Soon, ....Sooner,... . Soonest.

Auxiliary Adverbs.. . Wisely,. . More wisely.. Most wisely

2. By

EXERCISES.
Let the following Adverbs be classified and their Modification

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In a moment,
In flower,
O'er the ruins,
At pile.

5 Let the Adverbial Words, Phrases, and Sentences, in the follow ing Examples, be pointed ;ut and parsed after the following

MODEL.

1. “E'en now, where Alpine solitudes ascend,

I sit me down, a pensive hour to spend ;
And placed on high, above the storm's career,
Look downward, where a hundred realms appear.

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2.

Now..... . Modifies “sit”-denoting time; hence, an Adverb.
Where Alpine sol- ?
itudes ascend, · 5

} Modifies “ sit”—denoting place ; hence, an Adverb. Down..... Modifies “sit”—denoting place; hence, an Adverb. A pensive hour to Modifies “ sit”–denoting cause ; hence, an Adverb.

spend,... On high,.. .Modifies “placed”-denoting place; hence, an Adverb Above the storm's Modifies “placed—denoting place; hence, an Adverb

| Downward, . Modifies “look”-denoting place; hence, an Adverb. Where a hundred realms appear, .

} Modifies “look”–denoting place ; hence, an Adverb.

“Earth keeps me here
Awhile; yet I shall leave it, and shall rise

On fairer wings than thine, to skies more clear.
Here,.. . Modifies "keeps”-denoting place; hence, Adverb of Place.
Awhile,..... Modifies “keeps"—denoting time; hence, Adverb of Time.
On wings, ... Modifies “rise”-denoting means ; hence, Adverb of Means.

(“On fairer wings than thine,” is the Modified Adverb.) Than thine,.. Modifies “fairer”—denoting degree; hence, Adverb of De

gree. To skies, . . Modifies “rise”-denoting place; hence, Adverb of Place.

(“To skies more clear,” is the Modified Adverb.) More,.... .Modifies "clear"--denoting degree; hence, Adverb of Degree.

3. “How much better satisfied he is !” flow, .Modifies “much ;" hence, an Adverb. Much,. . Modifies “better;" hence, an Adverb. Better, .Modifies “satisfied;" hence, an Adverb.

Obs. 1.—Let it be remembered that the term “Adverbs” is applied to a distinct element in the structure of Sentences--that the function of that element may be performed by a single Word or by a combination

of Words, constituting a Phrase or a Sentence. In analyzing Sentences containing these three distinct forms of the Adverbial Element, we proceed according to the Models given above. But,

OBs. 2.—The Words composing an Adverbial Phrase or Sentence have also their distinct individual offices. Thus, the Adverbial Phrase “ Above the storm's career,” consists of a Preposition, (above)—an Adjec tive, (the)-an Adjective, (storm's)--a Noun, (career).

So also the Adverbial Sentence, “Where a hundred realms appear," consists of a Conjunction, (where)-an Aljective. (a)--an Adjective, (hun dred--a Noun, (realms)—and a Verb, (appear). Hence,

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Obs. 3.—In Proximate Analysis, it is sufficient to discuss the Elements of Principal Sentences ; while, in Ultimate Analysis, each separate Word composing an Element, is to be parsed separately.

ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES,

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Noiselessly around,
From perch to perch, the solitary bird

Passes." 5. How is it possible not to feel a profound sense of the responsiblos

ness of this Republic to all future ages.”
6. “ In a moment he flew quickly past.”
7. “ For there the shield of the mighty is vilely cast away.
8. “Thy pencil glows in every flower;"
“Where Sense can reach, or Fancy rove,

From hill to field, from field to grove,
Across the wave, around the sky,
There's not a spot, nor deep, por high,
Where the Creator has not trod,

And left the footsteps of a God.”
“ Eternal Hope! when yonder spheres sublime

Pealed their first notes to sound the march of Time, 10. Thy joyous youth began-but not to fade,

When all the sister planets have decayed :
When, wrapt in fire, the realms of ether glow,

And Heaven's last thunder shakes the world below, 11. Thou, undismayed, shalt o'er the ruins smile,

And light thy torch at Nature's funeral pile!"

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