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Past. Present Participle. Past Participle. Steal, stoie,
stealing, stolen. Stick, stuck,
sticking, stuck. Sting, stung,
stinging, stung. Stink, stunk or stank, * stinking, stunk. Striile, strode or strid,
stridden Strike, struck,
striking, struck or stricken. String, strung or stringed, stringing strung or stringed Strive, strove,
striving, striven. Strow, strowed,
strowing, strowed or strown Swear, swore,
swearing, Sweaty sweated or sweat, sweating, sweated or sweat Sweep, swept,
sweeping, swept. Swell, swelled,
swelling, swelled or swollen. Swim, swam,
swimming, swam. swung,
swinging, swung. Take, took,
taken. Teach, taught,
teaching, taught. Tear, tore,
torn. Tell, told,
told. Think, thought,
thinking, thought. Thrive, thrived or throve, thriving, thrived or thriven Throw, threw or throwed, throwing, thrown or throwed Thrust. thrust,
thrusting, thrust. Tread, trod,
treading, trodden or trod. Wake, waked or woke, waking,
waked or woke. Wax, waxed,
waxed or waxen. wore,
woven or wyn e. Wed,
wedded or wed, wedding, wedded or wed. Weep, wept,
weeping, wept. wet or wetted, wetting,
wet or wetted. Whet,
whetted or whet, whetting, whetted or whet. Win,
winning, won, Wind, wound or winded,* winding, wound or winded. Work, worked or wrought, . working,
worked or wrought Wring wrung or wringed,
wringing, wringed or wrung. Write, wrote,
writing, written or writ, Obs. 1 _Words in the above list, marked with a star (*), are not much used by modern writers.
He sweeps, .
OBs. 2.-A Verb often has a Preposition or other prefix placed before it; the conjugation, however, remains the same.
..overtaken. Misunderstand, .......misunderstood, ......misunderstood. REM.—The class should repeat this list in concert-prefixing to eacb Verb one of the Personal Pronouns. For the Third Person a Noun may be used—thus : I write,......I wrote,. I have written,
.having written You tread, ... you trod,. . you have trod,
.having trod. ...he swept, ....ho has swept, ... having swept. John does, ...John did, ....John has done, ..having done. Men sit, .....men sat,
.....men have sat, ....... having sat. Some hear,
.some heard, ..some have heard, ....having heard. They see,
.they saw, ..they are seen, . being seen. To the Transitive Verbs, Objects may be attached—thus: We saw wood,..
..... We sawed wood,. we have sawn wood. Birds build nests, ...birds built nests, ...birds have built nests. John writes letters,.John wrote letters,..John will write letters. Thou seest me,..
.....thou sawest me, ....thou wilt see me. Other variations in these concert exercises may be profitable-such as placing the words now, to-day, &c., after the Present-yesterday, &c. after the Past Tense—and heretofore, recently, &c., after the Prior Present–thus: I begin to-day,.....I began yesterday,... I have begun recently. The wind blows now, the wind blew then,. the wind has blown often. The bell rings often,..the bell rang lately, .the bell will ring to-morrow William writes now, .William wrote then, . William will write often.
DEF. 124.—A Verb used only as the Predicate of the Indefinite Pronoun "it,” is called a Unipersonal Verb.
EXAMPLES.-It snows-It rains-It seems-It becomes—It behovese It seems-It is evident.
Methinks is an anomalous form of the Verb think.
EXERCISES IN REVIEW.
Rem.—Let the pupil give the Voice, Mode, Tense, Person, and Number of the Verbs in the following Sentences.
1. People appla-sd benefactors. 2. Do they esteem vagabonds ! 3. William nas vieited Europe. 4. Have we exercised discretion 5. Columbus discovered America. 6. Did Washington secure renown! 7. Ye had accomplished purposes. 8. I shall understand you. 9. Will Warner study Greek ! 10. Thou wilt not comprehend it. 11. Ye will have accomplished much 12. We may receive instruction. 13. Canst thou guide Arcturus ! 14. Shall William accompany us! 15. I will study Greek. 16. They are not appreciated. 17. Could it not be accomplished ? 18. Mary might have been misinformed. 19. Wisdom should be honored. 20. Thou canst not have been understood. 21. Sevastopol could not have been taken. 22. Meteors might have been seen. 23. What sḥould have been done ? 24. Who can be trusted ? 25. Have you been reading poetry? 26. Cora will be writing letters. 27. Stephen could not have heen giving attention 28. Might Clara have been admitted ? 29. Boys had been reciting lessons. 30. We will not be enslaved. 81. Pupils might not have been giving attention 82. Caroline will have visited Syria. 33. Accompany Henry. 84. Cheer him. 86. Be honored
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REM.-As actions are modified by circumstances, and as 9 aalities iary in degree, so words expressing actions, and words denoting qualities, modified by other words, denoting time, place, degree, manner, cause, & Hence,
DEF. 125.—An Adverb is a Word used to modify the signification of a Verb, an Adjective, or another Modifier.
Obs. 1.—Adverbial Words are of great utility in rendering one lan.. guage concise and spirited. They are commonly substituted for Phrases
“Brilliantly,” ...for....“With a brilliant appearance.'
...for.. “At this time."
The waves are white oclor him.
Heat for me these irons hot.
Willie has come to his home at an early hour.
OBS. 2.-Words are also substituted for Adverbial Sentences. EXAMPLES." —“While there we visited the prison;" for, while ue were
at Auburn, we visited the prison.
“ Then, when I am thy captive, talk of chains."
2. Wilkes sailed quite AROUND THE World,
OBs. 4.-Adverbs may consist of Words, Phrases, and Sentences.
1. A Word.— The very best men sometimes commit faults.
Obs. 5.—The Words which Adverbs properly modify are sometimes understood.
EXAMPLE.—Thou canst but add one bitter wo
To those [ ] already there.
Obs. 6.—Adverbs sometimes take the place of Verbs, which they modify. EXAMPLES. — “ Of, off, I bid you.”
“ To arms !"
Obs. 7.-Adverbs sometimes take the place of Nouns, and hence become Pronouns. EXAMPLES.-1. “Till then”-for, till that time.
2. “From there”—for, from that place.
A small unkindness is a great offense.”
OBs. 8.—Participles become Adverbs when they indicate the manner of an action, or modify a quality.
EXAMPLES.—1. “The surging billows and the gamboling storms
Come, crouching, to his feet.”
“Now it mounts the wave,
OBs. 9.—A few words, commonly used as Prepositions, are sometimes used Adverbially. EXAMPLES. — 1. “Thou didst look down upon the naked earth."
2. “And may at last my weary age
Find orn the peaceful hermitage.”—Milton.