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DEF. 122.-A Defective Verb is a Verb that is not used in all the Modes and Tenses.

LIST.

Present.-Can,

Past.-Could,

may,
might.

must, ought,

shall, will. ought, quoth, should, would

a

REM.—We have seen (see Part I, p. 25) 1. That the Predicate of a Sentence must have at least one Verb.

a 2. That it may have other Words. 3. That in Predicates formed of more than one Word, the last

Word constitutes the Principal Part of the Predicate, i. e.,

makes the Principal Assertion.
4. That the Principal Part of a Predicate may be-

A Verb.-I love—I do see.
A Participle.-I am lovedI have seen.
An Adjective.—John is weary-Velvet feels smooth.
A Noun.-We are friends-He is a scholar.

A Pronoun.-It is E-Thine is the kingdom.
5. That the Words prefixed to the Principal Part are Auxiliaries,

and may be Verbs only, or Verbs and Participles. Hence,

a

a

DEF. 123.–An Auxiliary Verb is a Verb that is prefixed to another Verb or to a Participle, to distinguish the Voice, Mode, or Tense of the Principal Verb.

LIST.

Always Auxiliaries.
Present.--Can, may, must, shall.
Past.--Could, might,

should.

Sometimes Principal Verbs
Present.--Am, be, do, have,
Past.--

was,

did, had,

will. would.

OBS — These Words, when used as Auxiliaries, perform peculiar offices; thus,

Be with its various modifications, is used before a Past Participle

to indicate the Passive Voice.

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Can, may, must, shall (used to command), and will (signifying

volition), indicate the Present Tense of the Potential Mode. Could, might, should, and would, are the signs of the Past Tense

Potential.
Do is used in the Present Tense, Indicative-intensive form
Did

Past Tense,
Had

Prior Past Tense,“
Have

Prior Present Tense, Indicative
May have

Prior Present Tense, Potential
Might have

Prior Past Tense,
Shall

Future, Indicative (First Person).
Will

Future, Indicative (Second or Third Person) NOTE.—The Future and Prior Future Tenses are placed in the Indica tive Mode in conformity to the general custom of grammarians. A strid regard to uniformity and consistency would place them with their kindred forms in the Potential Mode. For,

The “ Indicative Mode is that form of the Verb used to indicate or assert an act, being, or state.” Now a thing future may be predicted, but cannot be declared or asserted. We may declare a purpose or make a prediction. So may we declare the possibility of an act, or the obligation to perform an act. But these are done by a modification of the Predicate, called Potentiol Mode. In the Sentence “I shall go,” we have asserted a prediction of an act.

“I may go,” we have asserted a probability of an acte

“I can go,” we have asserted a possibility of an act. “ I should go,” asserts obligation to perform an act. “I might go,” asserts liberty to perform an act.

“I could go,” asserts power to perform an act. Neither of the above assertions declares the performance of an act They assert “ probability, power, will, or obligation,” but no actual event.

The Potential Present and Past alike assert a present probability, prediction, possibility, &c., of a future act or event.

“I shall go if I choose,”
"I may go if I will,”
if I will,"

all refer to a future acto
“I should go if I were invited,"
“I might go if I were invited,"
“I could go if I were invited,”

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Re Let the Pupil substitute for the Word “John” the following Subjects, and notice what changes in the various Auxiliary Verbs must consequently be made. Thus,

I requires (am-have-shall-shall have).
Thou

(art-hast-hadst—wilt-mayest-mightst.)
They

(are-have.) People (are-have). He

[no change.]

Hence, Obs.—The practical object of the following Paradigms is to teach the Pupil what are the various changes in the form of the Predicate to correspond to the Subject, and to indicate the various Modes, Tenses, Persons, and Numbers.

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Paradigm of the Irregular Verb “BE."

We are,
Ye are,
You are,

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You are,

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PRINCIPAL PARTS.
Am, was, being, been.

INDICATIVE MODE.

PRESENT TENSE.
Singular Number.

Plural Number.
First Person..... I am,

| Thou art,
Second
Third
He is.

They are.
PRIOR PRESENT TENSE.
1. I have been,

We have been,
Thou hast been,

Ye have been,
2.
You have been,

You have been,
3. He has been.

They have been

PAST TENSE.
1. I was,

We were,
Thou wast,

| Ye were,
2.
You was,

You were,
3. He was.

They were
PRIOR PAST TENSE.
1. I had been,

We had been,
Thou hadst been,

Ş Ye had been,
2.
You had been,

You had been,
3. He had been.

They had been.

FUTURE TENSE. 1. I shall be,

We shall be,
s Thou wilt be,

S Ye will be,
2.
You will be,

7 You will be,
3. He will be.

They will bé.
PRIOR FUTURE TENSE.
1. I shall have been,

We shall have been,
Thou ,

Ye will have been,

You will have been, 3. He will have been.

They will have been

2. {You will have been,

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PRIOR PRESENT TENSE

Singular. 1. I may have been,

Thou mayst have been, 2. 3. He may have been.

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Plural.
We may have been,
| Ye may have been,

You may have been,
They may have been

PAST TENSE.

1. I might be,

We might be, 2. | Thou mightst be,

Ye might be,

You might be, 3. He might be.

They might be.

PRIOR PAST TENSE. 1. I might have been,

We might have been,

Ye might have been; You might have been,

You might have been, 3. He might have been.

They might have been.

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