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Obs.-In Regular Verbs, the sign of this Tense is d or ed added to the root of the Verb.

In Irregular Verbs, a distinct form is used. [See List.]

DEF. 116.—The Prior Present Tense denotes time past, but in a period reaching to the present. EXAMPLES.--I have completed my task.—John has returned.

Mary has been prospered.—Thou hast destroyed thyself. OBs. 3. Have, hast, and has, are the signs of this Tense. DEF. 117.-The Present Tense denotes time present. EXAMPLES.—Eliza studies.-Ellen is reading.

Do you hear the bell l-Emily may write that Diagram.
Obs. 1.—This is the simplest form of the Verb;—the sign do is used
to denote intensity, and in asking questions.
Obs. 2.-Present Tense may

be-
1. Definite-as, I am writing-William studies.

2. Indefinite-as, Virtue is commendable. DEF. 118.-The Prior Future Tense denotes time past, as compared with some future time specified.

EXAMPLE.—We shall have finished this recitation before the next class will come.

OBS.Shall have and will have are the signs of this Tense.

DEF. 119.-The Future Tense denotes future time, as compared with the present.

EXAMPLE. -James will return to-morrow-I shall see him.

OBS.-Shall, in the First Person, and will, in the Second and Third, are the signs of this Tense.

REM.-Distinctions of time are not indicated with precision by the form of the Verb. This must be done by the use of Adjuncts.

In the Potenvial Mode, the Tenses are quite Indefinite--one forma being often used for another.

The same remarks will apply to Participles—to the Infinitive, the Subjunctive, and sometimes the Indicative.

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Prior Past,

Past,
Prior Presents

Present,
Prior Future,

Future.
Prior Past,

Past,
Prior Present,

Present.
Past,
Present.
Present.
Past,
Present.
Past,
Present,
Compound.

J ACTIVE
INTRANSITIVE,

NEUTER,

Subjunctive, {

Imperative,
Infinitive,

Participle,

EXERCISES.

er Let each Verb and Participle in the following Exercises be pointed out, and its Class and Modification given. 1. I wrote.

7. Willing to be taught. 2. Thou art reading.

8. Having seen the teacher. 3. James

may
recite.

9. Retire. 4. Mary can study.

10. Let us alone. 5. Joining the multitude.

11. Permit me to pass. 6. Accustomed to study.

12. Let me go
13. It is pleasant to ridėin a sail-boat.
14. We are all fond of singing.
15. Some are accustomed to sing by rote.
16. The young ladies ought to have attended the lecture.
17 By teaching others we improve ourselves.
18. Being accustomed to study, we can learn that lesson easily.
19. Having been censured for idleness, John has resolved to be

diligent.
20. By endeavoring to please all, wo fnil to please any.

21. “To be or not to be—that is the question " 22. “Spirit! I feel that thou

Wilt soon depart 1 23. This body is too weak longer to hold

The immortal part. 24. The ties of earth are loosening, 25. They soon will break; 26. And thou, even as a joyous bird,

Thy flight wilt take

To the eternal world.” 27. Go forth when midnight winds are high,

And ask them whence they come; 28. Who sent them raging through the sky, 29. And where is their far home! 30.

“ Mark the sable woods, That shade sublime yon mountain's nodding brow 31. With what religious awe the solemn scene

Commands your steps. 32.

As if the reverend form
Of Minos or of Numa should forsake
The Elysian seats, and down the embowering giado

Move to your pausing eye.”
33. “In the pleased infant see its power expand,

When first the coral fills his little hand; 34. Throned in his mother's lap, it dries each tear,

As her sweet legend falls upon his ear; 35. Next it assails him in his top's strange hum,

Breathes in his whistle, echoes in his drum; 36. Each gilded toy that doting love bestows,

He longs to break, and every spring expose.” 37.

“Could I forget
What I have been, I might the better bear

What I am destined to. 88.

I am not the first
That has been wretched; but to think how much

I have been happier.”
39. “Truth crushed to earth will rise again,
40. The eternal years of God are hers :
41. But Error, wounded, writhes in pain

And dies amuid her worshipers."

MODEL.

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Crushed ....is [a Participle, from the Verb crush ;] used here to do

scribe a condition of “Truth;" hence, a Verbal Adjective. Will rise .... asserts an act of “Truth ;" hence, a Verb.

has 20 object; hence, Intransitive.
simply declares; hence, Indicative Mode.

denotes time future; hence, Future Tense. hre.. asserts being of "years;" hence, a Verb. Are .has no object; hence, Intransitive.

simply declares; hence, Indicative Mode.

denotes time present; hence, Present Tense. Wounded ...is [a Participle, from the Verb wound ;] used here to de

scribe a condition of “Error;" hence, a Verbal Adjective. Writhes..... asserts an act of “Error;" hence, a Verb.

has no object; hence, Intransitive.
simply declares; hence, Indicative Mode.
denotes time present; hence, Present Tense.

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“The surging billows and the gamboling storms

Come crouching to his feet.” Surging.....is [a Participle, from the Verb surge.]

used here to describe“ billows;" hence, a Verbal Adjective. Gamboling..is [a Participle, from the Verb gambol.]

used here to describe “storms;" hence, a Verbal Adjective. Come....

asserts an act of “billows” and “storms;" hence, a Verb.
has no object; hence, Intransitive.
simply declares; hence, Indicative Mode.

denotes time present; hence, Present Time. Crouching...is [a Participle, from the Verb crouch.]

used here to modify the act expressed by “come;"
(it declares the manner of coming ;) hence, an Adverb.

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“In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.” Beginning...is [a Participle, from the Verb begin.]

used here as the name of an event; hence, a Verbal Noun Created..... asserts an act of “God;" hence, a Verb.

act passes to objects (heaven and earth).
simply declares; hence, Indicative Mode.
deuotes a particular time past; hence, Part Teleć.

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CONJUGATION OF VERBS

REMARK 1.-We have seen that most verbs are varied in form to de pote different modes and times of action or being.

They are also varied to correspond with their subjects in on and Number The regular arrangement of the various forms of a Verb is called its

Conjugation. Rem. 2.–Verbs are varied by inflection of their Radicals, or by the use of different Radicals. Hence, Prin.-Verbs are distinguished as

Regular and Irregular.

REGULAR VERBS.

save, fear.

DEF. 120.-A Regular Verb is a Verb whose Past Tense is formed by the addition of d or ed to the Radical. EXAMPLES. -Present Tense.- I love, act,

Past Tense.—I loved, acted, saved, feared. OBS. 1.—Some Verbs, for euphony, drop the final letter of the Radical.

EXAMPLES. -Love, loved—Save, saved-Recite, recited.

Obs. 2.-Some Verbs, for euphony, double a final letter of the Radical.

EXAMPLES. -Tan, tanned—Transmit, transmitted.

IRREGULAR VERBS.

DEF. 121.--An Irregular Verb is a Verb whose Past Tense is not made by the addition of d or ed to the Radical. EXAMPLES.— Present Tense.--I am, see, do, hide, lay,

Past Tense.I was, saw, did, hid, laid. Rem. Some Irregular Verbs are not used in all the Modes and Termos Hence,

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