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DEF. 107.-A Verb used without limitation by a Sub

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OBS. 1.-The Preposition to, is usually placed before the Infinitive Verb.

EXAMPLES.-" To enjoy is to obey."

"I came not here to talk."

OBS. 2.-But that Word is sometimes suppressed.
EXAMPLES.-"Let me hear thy voice, awake, and bid her
Give me new and glorious hopes."

OBS. 3.-As a Verb in the Infinitive has no grammatical Subject, it cannot be a Predicate. It is used, in combination with its Preposition, 1. Substantively; as-To do good is the duty of all.

2. Adjectively;

3. Adverbially;

as- -The way to do good.

as-I ought to do good.


REM.-In the three Sentences,

1. Birds sing,

2. Birds are singing,

3. Singing birds delight us,

the Word "sing" (in Example 1) is a Verb-used to assert an act of "birds."

In Example (2) "singing" is derived from the same Verb; and with the aid of the Auxiliary Verb “are," it makes the same assertion.

In Example (3), " singing" does not assert, but it assumes the same act. The same signification remains in the three Words, while they perform different grammatical offices. Hence,

DEF. 108.-A Participle is a word derived from a Verb, retaining the signification of its Verb, while it also performs the office of some other "part of speech."

OBS. 1.-Participles are Derivative Words, formed from their Radicals-commonly by the addition of ing or ed




REM.-A Participle is used with or without an Auxiliary prefixed Hence,

PRIN-Participles are Simple or Compound.

DEF. 109.-A Simple Participle is a single Word de rived from its Verb.

EXAMPLES.-Loving, loved-having, had--being, been.

DEF. 110.—A Compound Participle consists of a simple Participle, with the Auxiliary Participles "having" or "being," or "having been."

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6. Having been loving,... Having been fearing.

REM.-In giving names to the different Participles, grammarians are not agreed. By different authors the Simple Participles are distinguished as Present and Past,

"Active and Passive,

Imperfect and Perfect,

"First and Second, and by other terms.

REM. While none of the above names can be regarded as wholly free from imperfections, those first mentioned are perhaps less objectionable than others.


PRIN.-The Simple Participles are distinguished as 1. Present, or First; and,

2. Past, or Second.

DEF. 111.—The Present Participle is the Participle formed by adding ing to the root of the Verb, and com monly indicates a present act, being, or state. EXAMPLES.-Being-having-loving-walking-doing-fearing.

OBS. 1.-When the Participle is used with a Verb, the time is indi cated by the Verb, and may be Present, Past, or Future.

EXAMPLES.-Present.-I am writing letters.

Past.-I was writing letters.

Future.-I shall be writing letters.

DEF. 112.-A Past Participle is the Participle that is regularly formed by adding ed to the root of its Verb.


OBS. 1.-The Past Participles of Irregular Verbs are variously formed (See list.)

OBS. 2.—The Past Participle may be used with a Verb indicating time, Present, Past, or Future.

EXAMPLES.-Present. I am loved,........ William is seen.

Past. I was loved,....... William was seen.

Future.—I shall be loved, ... William will be seen.

OBS. 3.-The Present Participle is commonly Active in signification. EXAMPLES.-1. A falling leaf.

2. A fading flower.


"Scaling yonder peak,

I saw an eagle, wheeling near its brow."

OBS. 4.—The Past Participle is commonly Passive in signification. EXAMPLES.-1. Injured reputation.

2. Lost opportunity.

3. "Truth crushed to earth, will rise again."

OBS. 5.-The Past Participle, preceded by the Auxiliary having s nзed actively.

EXAMPLES.-1. Having loved.

2. Having lost a day.

3. "The hour having arrived, we commenced the exercises." 4. Having seen the elephant, the rustic was satisfied.

OBS. 6.-Preceded by the Auxiliary being, or having been, the Past Participle is used Passively..

EXAMPLES.-1. Being loved.

2. Having been censured for idleness, John resolved

be diligent.

OBS. 7.-A Compound Participle may be Present or Prior Present— Active or Passive

EXAMPLES.-Present.-Being loved,

Prior Present.-Having loved,



.Being seen.

. Having seen.

. Having seen.

{Having been walking,....Having been seeing.

Passive. Being loved,...

.Being seen,

Having been loved,. . Having been seen.

OBS. 8 —Participles have no distinct Etymological character. They

find a place in all the "parts of speech," being used as

1. Nouns,

4. Prepositions,

1. Noun.

2. Adjectives,

3. Adverbs,

5. Conjunctions,

6. Exclamations.

7 In Predicate with Auxiliary Verbs.
8. To introduce a Participial Phrase.

2. Adjective.....


.(a). Singing is a pleasing exercise.

(6). William maintains a fair standing in society. (c). "In the beginning, God created the heaven." .(d). A running BROOK-a standing TREE.

(e). Behold the GOOSE standing on one foot.

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""Tis strange; 'tis passing STRANGE.”

The task was exceedingly DIFFICULT.

4. Preposition......(h). "I speak concerning Christ and the Church."

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(i). "Nothing was said touching that question."

..(k). “Seeing we can not agree, the discussion may be dropped."

..(1). Shocking! Astonishing!

...(m). "Birds are singing-bees are humming."

8. Leader of Phrase. (n). Wounding the feelings of others.


"Avoid wounding the feelings of others."

(p). A habit of moving quickly, is another way of

gaining time.

OBS. 9.-Participles, like the Verbs from which they are derived, ar Transitive or Intransitive.

OBS. 10.-A Participle used as a Preposition, must be Transitive.
EXAMPLES.-I speak concerning Christ and the Church.

OBS. 11.-A Participle used as a Noun, as an Adjective, or in Predicate, or as the Leader of a Participial Phrase, may be Intransitive.

1. Noun....

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Scolding has long been considered ungenteel.” 2. Adjective.....“The curfew tolls the knell of parting day.”

3. Predicate...Spring-time of year is coming.

OBS. 12.-A Participle used as a Conjunction or as an Advert must be Intransitive.

EXAMPLES." Wherefore is there a price in the hands of a fool to get wisdom, seeing he hath no heart to it."

"A virtuous household, but exceeding poor."


REM.-Generally the form of the Verb denotes not only the manner, but also the time, of the action or event expressed by it. Hence the distinction of Tense.

DEF. 113.-Tense is a modification of Verbs, denoting a distinction of time.

REM.-Time is Present, Past, or Future: of each of these periods we have two varieties, represented by different forms. Hence,

PRIN.-Most Verbs have six Tenses

Prior Past and Past,

Prior Present and Present,

Prior Future and Future.

DEF. 114.-The Prior Past Tense denotes time past at some other past time mentioned, or implied.

EXAMPLE-I had already expressed my opinion.

OBS.-Had is usually the sign of this Tense.

DEF. 115.-The Past Tense denotes time fully past.
EXAMPLES.-I wrote you a letter-We walked to Troy.

I saw an eagle-David loved Jonathan.

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