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REM. Things may be described not only by Words but also hy Phrases and by Sentences.


Adjective Phrases.-1. "The TIME of my departure is at hand."

2. "Night is the TIME for rest.”

3. "Turn, gentle HERMIT of the vale."

Adjective Sentences.-1. "HE that getteth wisdom loveth his own soul." 2. Mount the HORSE which I have chosen for thee.

3. "THOU, whose spell can raise the dead,

Bid the prophet's form appear."



97.—What is an Adjective?....

Why are Adjectives used?.

For what various purposes are Adjectives used?

How are Adjectives distinguished?...

What is a Qualifying Adjective?.

.See Def. 86.

.See Rem. 1.

....See Rem. 2.

.See Prin.

.See Def. 87.

98.-What is a Specifying Adjective?... What is aner Adjective?

.See Def. 88.

..See Obs. 1.

What is an Interrogative Adjective?

How are Specifying Adjectives distinguished?
What is a Pure Specifying Adjective?
What is a Possessive Specifying Adjective?
99.-How are Possessive Adjectives formed?..
What is a Numeral Adjective? ..

What is a Verbal Adjective?.

100.-How are Verbal Adjectives distinguished?.

101.--How are Adjectives modified?...

How many Degrees of Comparison may some Ad-
jectives have?..

.See Obs.

.See Prin.

.See Def. 89.
.See Def. 90
.See Note.

. See Def. 91. ..See Def. 92.

.See Prin.

.See Prin.

See Prin.

When is an Adjective of the Diminutive form!....

.See Def. 93.

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.See Obs. 2.

102. What is said of Comparison descending?.

When do we prefix a Word to denote comparison? . See Obs. 3.

What Adjectives are compared irregularly?

103.-Are all Adjectives compared?.

.See Prin.

.See Obs. 7


REM.-As all things in the universe live, move, or have a being, we necessarily have a class of Words used to express the act, being, or state of those things. Hence,

DEF. 97.-A Verb is a Word used to express the act, "eing, or state of a person or thing.


REM. The act expressed by some Verbs passes over to an Object. Hence,

PRIN.-Verbs are distinguished as

Transitive or Intransitive.

DEF. 98.-A Transitive Verb is a Verb that expresses an action which terminates on an Object.

EXAMPLES. John saws wood-God created heaven and earth.

DEF. 99.-An Intransitive Verb a Verb that expresses the being or state of Subject, or an action which does not terminate on an Object.

EXAMPLES.—Animals run—I sit-John is sleepy.

OBS. 1.-Some Verbs are used transitively or intransitively.

EXAMPLES." Cold blows the wind."

"The wind blows the dust."

"It has swept through the earth."

"Jane has swept the floor."
"God moves in a mysterious way."

"Such influences do not move me."

DEF. 100.-The Verbs be, become, and other Intransitive Verbs, whose subjects are not represented as performing a physical act, are called Neuter Verbs.

EXAMPLES.—He is—God exists—we become wise-they die.


OBS.-The Verbs commonly called Neuter are-appertain-be--become -belong-exist-lie-rest-seem-sleep.


REM.-Verbs that denote action have two methods of representing the action.


1st-As done by its Subject-as, Jane loves Lucy.

2d-As done to its Subject—as, Lucy is loved by Jane.`.

PRIN.-Transitive Verbs have two Voices

Active and Passive.

DEF. 101. The Active Voice represents the Subject as performing an action.

EXAMPLE.-Columbus discovered America.

DEF. 102.-The Passive Voice represents the Subject as being acted upon. ;

EXAMPLE.-America was discovered by Columbus.

OBS. 1.-The same fact may commonly be expressed by either the Active or the Passive form.

EXAMPLES.-William assists Charles.

The same fact stated.

Charles is assisted by William. "William," the Subject of the Active Verb, becomes the Object of "by," when the Verb becomes Passive; and "Charles," the Object of the Active Verb, becomes the Subject of the Passive.

Obs. 2.—In the English language, the formation of the Passive Voice is less simple than in many other languages. Thus, the corresponding assertions,

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IN LATIN-Doceo, in the Active Voice, has Doceor in the Passive. IN ENGLISH-I teach, 66 I am taught Hence, the English Verb does not form its Passive Voice by an "inflection of the form of the Active," but by combining the Verb le, in its various modifications, with a Participle of the given Verb.

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OBS. 3.-Most Transitive Verbs may take the Passive form.

OBS. 4.—A Verb taking the Passive form becomes grammatically Intransitive. The action is directed to no object. The Subject receives the action.

OBS. 5.-But few Intransitive Verbs take the Passive form.


We laughed at his clownish performances.—(Active Intrans.)
His clownish performance was laughed at.—(Passive.)


REM. In addition to their primary signification, Verbs perform a secondary office-i. e., they indicate some attendant or qualifying cireumstances. This is indicated by the variations of the form of the Verb, or by prefixing Auxiliary Words.

1. A Verb may simply express a fact.

2. It may express a fact as possible, probable, obligatory, &c.

3. It may express a fact conditionally.

4. It may express a command or request.

5. It may express the name of an act, or a fact unlimited by a subject. Hence,

PRIN.-Verbs have five modes of expressing their

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DEF. 103.-A Verb used simply to indicate or assert a

fact or to ask a question, is in the

Indicative Mode.

EXAMPLES." God created the heaven and the earth."

"Is he not honest?" "Whence come wars?"

DEF. 104.—A Verb indicating probability power, wili. or obligation, of its subject, is in the

Potential Mode.

OBS.-Words which may be regarded as signs of the Potential Mode, are, may-might-can-could-must-shall—should—will—would, either alone, or followed by the Word have.

EXAMPLES.-I may go-you might have gone-John should study-Mary can learn-It could not be done-John shall study.

DEF. 105.-A Verb expressing a fact conditionally (hypothetically) is in the

Subjunctive Mode.

EXAMPLES." If he repent, forgive him."

OBS.-If, though, unless, and other Conjunctions, are commonly used with the Subjunctive Mode. But they are not to be regarded as the signs of this Mode, for they are also used with the Indicative and the Potential.

EXAMPLES.-If the boat goes to-day, I shall go in it.

I would stay if I could conveniently.

The condition expressed by "if the boat goes," is assumed as a fact-hence, "goes" is in the Indicative Mode.

NOTE.-The Subjunctive Mode is limited to Auxiliary (Adverbial) Sentences.


DEF. 106.-A Verb used to command or intreat is Imperative Mode.

in the

EXAMPLES.-1. "If he repent, forgive him."

2. "Come to the bridal chamber, Death!"

OBS.-As we can command only a person or thing addressed, the subject of an Imperative Verb must be of the Second Person; and, as a person addressed is supposed to be present to the speaker, the name of the subject is usually understood.

EXAMPLES.-Cry aloud-Spare not.

But it is often expressed...

"Go ye into all tnc world."

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