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ADJECTIVE PHRASES AND SENTENCES.

Rem.—Things may be described not only by Words but also hy Phrases and by Sentences.

EXAMPLES

Adjective Phrases.—1. “The TIME of my departure is at hand.”

2. “Night is the time for rest."

3. "Turn, gentle Hermit of the vale." Adjective Sentences.-1. “He that getteth wisdom loveth his own soul."

2. Mount the HORSE which I have chosen for thee. 3. “Thou, whose spell can raise the dead,

Bid the prophet's form appear.”

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QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW.. 97.—What is an Adjective ?....

.See Def. 86. Why are Adjectives used!.

.See Rem. 1.
For what various purposes are Adjectives used ? ....See Rem. 2.
How are Adjectives distinguished ? .

.See Prin.
What is a Qualifying Adjective?

.See Def. 87, 98.—What is a Specifying Adjective?.

.See Def. 88. What is a ner Adjective? .

.See Obs. 1.
What is an Interrogative Adjective ?

.See Obs.
How are Specifying Adjectives distinguished ? ..See Prin.
What is a Pure Specifying Adjective? .

.See Def. 89.
What is a Possessive Specifying Adjective?

.See Def. 90 99.-Ilow are Possessive Adjectives formed ?

.See Note.
What is a Nuneral Adjective?

.See Def. 91.
What is a Verbal Adjective!..

.See Def. 92. 100.-How are Verbal Adjectives distinguished ?.

.See Prin. 101.--How are Adjectives modified?..

.See Prin.
How many Degrees of Comparison may some Ad- }

See Prin.
jectives havel.....
When is an Adjective of the Diminutive form!. .See Def. 93.
When

Positive

....See Def. 94. When

Superlative ...See Def. 96 102.- What is said of Comparison descending ?

.See (bs. 2. When do we prefix a Word to denote comparison 8. See Olis. 3.

What Adjectives are compared irregularly? .See Prin. 103.—Are all Adjectives compared ?.

.See Obs. 7

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VERBS.

Rem.-As all things in the universe live, move, or have a being, we aecessarily have a class of Words used to express the act, being, or state of those things. Hence,

DEF. 97.-A Verb is a Word used to express the act, "eing, or state of a person or thing.

CLASSIFICATION.

REM—The act expressed by some Verbs passes over to an Object. Hence, PRIN.–Verbs are distinguished as

Transitive or Intransitive.

DEF. 98.-A Transitive Verb is a Verb that expresses an action which terminates on an Object.

EXAMPLES. -John saws wood-God created heaven and earth.

DEF. 99.-An Intransitive Vert . a Verb that expresses the being or state of . Subject, or an action which does not terminate on an Object.

EXAMPLES.- Animals run--I sit-John is sleepy.

Obs. 1.—Some Verbs are used transitively or intransitively.
EXAMPLES." Cold Blows the wind.”

“The wind Wows the dust.”
“It has swept through the earth.”
“Jane has swept the floor.”
“God moves in a mysterious way.”
“Such influences do not move me.”

DEF. 100.-The Verbs be, become, and other Intiansitive Verbs, whose subjects are not represented as performing a plıysical act, are called Neuter Perus.

EXAMPLES.--He is God exists—we become wise—they die.

LIST.

OBS.— The Verbs commonly called Neuter are-appertainbem-becomio -belong-exist-lie-restseemsleep.

MODIFICATION OF VERBS.

REM.—Verbs that denote action have two methods of representing the action.

1st-As done by its Subject-as, Jane loves Lucy.

2d-As done to its Subject—as, Lucy is loved by Jane. • Hence, PRIN.-Transitive Verbs have two Voices

Active and Passive.

DEF. 101.—The Active Voice represents the Subject as performing an action.

EXAMPLE.Columbus discovered America.

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DEF. 102.-The Passive Voice represents the Subject as being acted upon.

EXAMPLE. — America was discovered by Columbus.

Obs. 1.—The same fact may commonly be expressed by either the Active or the Passive form. EXAMPLES.-William assists Charles.

.} The same fact stated. “William,” the Subject of the Active Verb, becomes the Object of “by," when the Verb becomes Passive; and “Charles," the Object of the Active Verb, becomes the Subject of the Passive.

Ops. 2.-In the English language, the formation of the Passive Voice is less simple than in many other languages. Thus, the corresponding assertions,

IN LATIN— Doceo, in the Active Voice, has Doceor in the Passive IN ENGLISHI teach,

I am taught Hence, the English Verb does not form its Passive Voice by an "inflection of the form of the Active,” but by combining the Verb lt, in its various modifications, with a Participle of the given Verb.

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EXAMPLES

Active.—To see,

I love, They applaud, Man worships Passive. To be seen, I am loved, They are applauded, God is wor.

shippel. OBs. 3.—Most Transitive Verbs may take the Passive form.

Obs. 4.-A Verb taking the Passive form becomes grammatically intransitive. The action is directed to no object. The Subject receives the action.

Obs. 5.-But few Intransitive Verbs take the Passive form.

EXAMPLES.

We laughed at his clownish performances.—(Active Intrans.)
His clownish performance was laughed at:-(Passive.)

MODE.

REM.—In addition to their primary signification, Verbs perform a secondary office—i. e., they indicate some attendant or qualifying cireumstances. This is indicated by the variations of the form of the Verb, or by prefixing Auxiliary Words.

1. A Verb may simply express a fact.
2. It may express a fact as possible, probable, obligatory, &c.
3. It may express a fact conditionally.
4. It may express a command or request.
5. It may express the name of an act, or a fact unlimited by a

subject. Hence, PRIN.—Verbs have five modes of expressing their signification, Indicative,

Subjunctive,
Potential,

Imperative, and

Infinitive. DEF. 103.-A Verb used simply to indicate or assert a fact or to ask a question, is in the

Indicative Mode.

EXAMPLES. "God created the heaven and the earth."

“ Is he not honest?” “Whence como wars ?”

DEF. 104.—A Verb indicating probability power, will. or obligation, of its subject, is in the

Potential Mode. Obs.-Words which may be regarded as signs of the Potential Mode, are, maymight-can-could-must-shallshouldwillwould, eithe alone, or followed by the Word have.

EXAMPLES.-I may go--you might have gone—John should study-Mary can learn—It could not be done—John shall study.

DEF. 105.-A Verb expressing a fact conditionally (hypothetically) is in the

Subjunctive Mode. EXAMPLES.—"If he repent, forgive him.”

OBS.— If, though, unless, and other Conjunctions, are commonly used with the Subjunctive Mode. But they are not to be regarded as the signs of this Mode, for they are also used with the Indicative and the Potential. EXAMPLES.—If the boat goes to-day, I shall go in it.

I would stay if I could conveniently. The condition expressed by “if the boat goes,” is assumed as a fact-hence, “goes” is in the Indicative Mode.

NOTE.—The Subjunctive Mode is limited to Auxiliary (Adverbial) Sentences. DEF. 106.-A Verb used to command or intreat is .

Imperative Mode. EXAMPLES. — 1. “If he repent, forgive him.”

2. “ Come to the bridal chamber, Death!" Obs.—As we can command only a person or thing addressed, the bubject of an Imperative Verb must be of the Second Person; and, as a person addressed is supposed to be present to the speaker, the name o! the subject is usually understood.

EXAMPLES.Cry aloud-Spare not.
But it is often expressed. -

“Gu yc iuto all toc world."

in the

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