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MODIFICATION OF ADJECTIVES.
REM.—Most Qualifying Adjectives express, by variations in form, different degrees of quality. Hence,
PRIN.—Some Adjectives are varied in form to denote
be four degrees of Comparison.
4. Superlative, ... bluest, ..saltest. DEF. 93.—The Diminutive Degree denotes an amount of the quality less than the Positive.
It is commonly formed by adding ish to the form of the Positive.
DEF. 94.-The Positive Degree expresses quality in its simplest form, without a comparison. EXAMPLES.-Large-pure-rich--good-glimmering.
“Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight.” DEF. 95.-The Comparative Degree expresses an increase or a decrease of the Positive.
It is commonly formed by adding er, or the Words more or less, to the form of the Positive. EXAMPLES.—Larger-purer-richer—more common-less objectionable.
“ Richer by far is the heart's adoration.” DEF. 96.-The Superlative Degree expresses the highest increase of the quality of the Adjective.
It is commonly formed by adding est, or the Words most or least, to the form of the Positive. EXAMPLES.—Largest-purest—most ungrateful—uppermost.
“The purest treasure mortal times afford
Obs. 1.-By the use of other Words, the degrees of Comparison may be rendered indefinitely numerous.
EXAMPLES.--Cautious—somewhat cautious—very cautious—unusually cautious remarkably cautious—exceedingly cautious—too little cautious Uncautious-quite uncautious.
Obs. 2.-Comparison descending, is expressed by prefixing the Words less and least to the Adjective.
EXAMPLES. --Wise, less wise, least wise--ambitious, less ambitious, least ambitious.
Obs. 3.—Most Adjectives of two or more syllables, are compared by prefixing the words more and most, or less and least, to the Positive.
. least careful. OBs. 4.-Some Adjectives may be compared by either method specified above.
Comparative. ..remoter, ..more remote,
.remotest. .......most remote.
PRIN.—Some Adjectives are irregular in comparison.
OBs. 5.-Some Adjectives want the Positive.
“He was in the after part of the ship."
OBs. 6. -Some Adjectives want the Comparative.
“He stood upon the topmost round.”
Obs. 7.-Some Adjectives can not be compared—the qualities they indicate not being susceptible of increase or diminution.
ver Let the Pupil determine which of the following Adjectives are Qualifying, which are Specifying, and which are Verbal. Of the Qualifying Adjectives, which can be compared, and how compared—of the Specifying Adjectives, which are Pure, which Numeral, which Possessive -of the Verbal, which are Transitive, which are Intransitive. Able,
False, That, Forgotten,
Good, Three, Standing,
Let the Pupil point out the Adjectives, Nouns, and Pronouns, in the following Sentences, and name their classes and modifications. Let him be careful to give a reason for the classification and modification of each, by repeating the appropriate definitions and observations
1. Good scholars secure the highest approbation of their teacher. 2. Some men do not give their children a proper education. 3. A trifling accident often produces great results. 4. An ignorant rich man is less esteemed than a wise poor man. 6. The richest treasure mortal times afford, is, spotless reputation.
“These dim vaults, These winding aisles, of human pomp or pride, 7. Report not. No fantastic carvings show
The boast of our vain race, to change the form 8. Of thy fair works. Thou art in the soft winds
That run along the summits of these trees 9. In music: thou art in the cooler breath,
That, from the inmost darkness of the place, 10. Comes, scarcely felt: the barky trunks, the ground,
The fresh, moist ground, are all instinct with thee."
These.. .describes “vaults ;" hence an Adjective--for “a Word used to
qualify or otherwise describe a Noun or Pronoun, is an Ad-
specify is a Specifying Adjective." Dim....qualifies “vaults;" hence an Adjective--for “a Word used to
qualify or otherwise describe a Noun or Pronoun, is an Adjec-
tive." Vaults ..is a Name; hence a Noun--for “ the Name of a being, place, or
thing, is a Noun.”
Winding..describes “aisles ;" hence an Adjective-for a Worü used
to qualify or otherwise describe a Noun or Pronoun, is av
condition, state, or act, is a Verbal Adjective.” Humac , describes “pomp” or “pride;" hence an Adjective for "
Word used to qualify or otherwise describe a Noup or Pro
Adjective.” [It is profitable to repeat the Definitions until they become familiar: after that they may be omitted—the parts of speech and the classes and modifications of the several Words being simply named, as in the follow ing exercise.]
“No fantastic carvings show
Class. Person. Number. Case. No is an Adjective Specifying,
limits “carvings.” Fantastic “ Adjective Qualifying,
qualifies "carvings." Carvings Noun Common, Third, Plu. Nom. to "show." The Adjective Specifying,
limits “boast.” Boast
Noun Common, Third, Sing Obj. of "show."
The Teacher will abridge or extend these Exercises at pleasure. Then let four Sentences be made, each containing the Word good, so that, in the first, it will qualify the Subject-in the second, the Objectin the third, the Object of a Phrase attached to the Subject in the fourth, the Object of a Phrase attached to the Object.
In like manner use the Words amiablehonest-industrious-Wisao this--some--loving--loved. Thus,
1. That amiable young lady was at the lecture.