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height to bear fruit, which is ordinarily about fifteen or twenty feet. It is well known there, that the period of bearing might be hastened by grafting or budding; but this has never been resorted to generally. It is true, several individuals have practised these operations very successfully on wild stocks, but these are mere exceptions. The propagation of the orange by cuttings, or by layers, does not succeed well in Florida, probably owing to the aridity of the soil and climate.
Near the equator, the fructification of the orange is constant, and is at one and the same time, in all stages of its bearing; but in higher latitudes, it continues flowering during nearly all the summer, and the fruit takes two years to come to maturity; so that perpetually, at the equator, and for a considerable portion of the year in higher latitudes, a healthy tree exhibits every stage of the production, from the flower-bud to the ripe fruit in perfection, at the same time. The gathering of oranges, intended for the European and American markets, usually takes place from October to January, while they are green; but they do not fully mature before spring has commenced. And it is a remarkable fact, that the trees from which the fruit is gathered green, bear plentifully every year, while those upon which the fruit is suffered to ripen, afford abundant crops only on alternate years.
Insects. The principal insects that infest the orange-tree, are several species of coccidæ, or bark-lice, the habits of which are nearly uniform, and may be described as follows :-On examining the trees early in the spring, the female insects may be found, in a lifeless state, fastened close to the bark, having been fixed in this position ever since the year before. A little later in the season, their bodies become more distended, and on carefully removing them, numerous eggs will be found beneath them. At this period, the internal parts of their bodies appear to be dried up and dead, their outer skins only remaining, which serve as shields for protecting their future progeny. On the approach of the heats of summer, the larvæ are hatched, and escape at the lower extremities of the shields, which are slightly elevated or notched at these parts. In this stage of their existence, they usually have the appearance of small, oval, roundish, or oblong scales, of a brownish colour, and much in the shape of their parent shields, but thinner, more flattened, and of a paler colour. “At first, they are full of activity, disperse themselves over the young shoots and leaves, puncture the tender parts, exhaust the sap by suction, and increase in size, till they prepare for change. In the early period of their growth, their heads are completely concealed beneath the shells of their bodies; their beaks or suckers appear to proceed from their breasts; and their legs, which are six in number, are so short that they are not visible from above. When they have completed the larva state, they prepare for transformation by emitting from the under sides of their bodies, numerous little downy threads, by which they securely confine themselves to the bark. After becoming thus fixed, they remain, for a time, in a torpid state, and under these inanimate scales, the transformations of both sexes take place. The outer coverings of the males serve as cocoons, from which they appear to shrink and become detached. In the course of time, they push themselves out of their shells, at the little fissures at their extremities, and appear in their perfect form, having two wings, which lie flatly upon their bodies, but no beaks, as they had previous to their transformation. In a few days after the females fasten themselves to the bark, they contrive to burst, and throw off in dakes, their outer coats, and betake similar forms as those which they before assumed, and enter into the pupa or chrysalis state. When mature, they retain their beaks or suckers, and are wingless, but are destined never to change their places after they have once become fixed. In this condition, their bodies are greatly enlarged, and in some species, approach more or less to a spherica
form. It is in this condition that they receive the embraces of the males, after which, they continue to increase in size for a time, eject their eggs, and gradually shrink away, leaving nothing but their dry, outer skins, and perish on the spot. After the eggs mature, they imperceptibly pass under the body of their mother, where they remain, until they undergo the changes before described.
The species that commonly attacks the orange in southern Europe, the Azores, and the West India Islands, is the Coccus hesperidum, which also infests the myrtle. It may be known by the oblong-oval form, and brownish colour of its shield, which is covered, as it were, with a coat of varnish. Another species, the pest of Florida, for the last five years, is the Coccus **** ? It is about one-eighth of an inch in length, and one tenth as wide as it is long, of a brownish colour, pointed at the extremities, and straight, or curved, according to the nature of the surface to which it adheres. The larvæ make their first appearance at St. Augustine as soon as a few warm days occur, in January or February; but their general hatching period is not considered to begin before March, and is never suspended from that time until the commencement of the cool weather in November or December. Myriads of these young insects, scarcely discernible to the unaided eye, may be observed crawling over the trees, puncturing the tender shoots and leaves, and sucking their sap, by which they gradually increase in size, and in about eight days, permanently fix themselves to the trunk, branches, and leaves, to undergo their transformations. Soon after the commencement of hot weather in May, vast numbers of the perfect male insects may be seen, and, as the season advances, they become still more numerous, until they are checked by cool weather, in September or October. In shaking violently a tree infested with these insects, myriads and myriads of them may be seen flying between the observer and the rising sun. And during the summer, the young leaves, branches, and other uninfested parts of the trees become rapidly and successively covered with the scales of these insects, which are at first scarcely perceptible to the naked eye, but soon increase to their full size. This circumstance tends to prove that there are many broods or generations in the same season.
This insect first made its appearance in Florida, in Robinson's grove, at Mandarin, on the St. John's, in 1838, on some trees of the Mandarin variety, which had been procured in New York. In the course of three or four years they spread to the neighbouring plantations, to the distance of ten miles, and were the most rapid in their migrations in the direction of the prevailing winds, which evidently aided them in their movements. In 1840, Mr. P. $. Smith, of St. Augustine, obtained some orange-trees from Mandarin, and had them planted in his front yard. From these trees the insects went to others of the same enclosure, and rapidly extended themselves to the trees and plantations to the northerly and westerly parts of that city and vicinity, obviously aided in their migration by the south-east trade-winds, which blow there almost daily during summer; and what is remarkable, these insects were occupied nearly three years in reaching trees in the south-east part of the city, only about half of a mile from their original point of attack. They have since, however, extended themselves to all the trees in and about the city; but have not yet travelled in any direction beyond ten miles. Being aided in their dispersion by birds and other natural causes, impossible to guard against, they must eventually attack most, if not all the trees in Florida; for the wild orange groves suffer equally with those which have been cultivated, and no difference can be perceived in their ravages, between old and young trees, nor between vigorous and decayed ones. Various remedies have been tried to arrest their progress, such as fumigating the trees with tobacco smoke, covering them with soap, lime, potash, sulphur, shellac, glue, and viscid or tenacious substances, mixed with clay,
quicklime, salt, etc., but all have failed partially or entirely, and it appears not to be in the power of man to prevent the ravages of these insignificant and insidjous destroyers. Most of the cultivated orange-trees in Florida have already been injured by them, their tops and branches having been mostly destroyed. Their roots and stems, it is true, remain alive, and annually send forth a crop of young shoots, only to share the fate of their predecessors. The visitation of these insects in Florida, probably is not destined to continue much longer, at least with its present violence; for, among the means which nature has provided to check their increase, are various species of birds, that devour inconceivable numbers of them, and the coccidæ are invariably accompanied by considerable numbers of yellow lady-birds, (coccinelle,) which, it has been conjectured, have been appointed to keep them down.
Properties and Uses. The wood of the orange-tree, when dry, weighs fortyfour pounds to a cubic foot, is hard, compact, flexible, slightly odoriferous, and is susceptible of being polished. When recently cut, it is of a yellowish hue, but in the course of time it fades. From its scarcity and small size, it is but little employed in the arts, the only particular uses to which it is applied being to make boxes, dressing-cases, and other articles of fancy; and in Florida, considerable quantities of straight, young shoots, are cut, and shipped in bundles, to be made into walking-canes.
The fruit of the orange may be obtained fresh, in any region of the globe, and at almost every season of the year. The aromatic oil and the rind preserve it from the effects both of heat and of cold; and the acridity of the former renders it proof against the attacks of insects. It is true that oranges decay, like other fruit; but that does not happen for a long time, if the rind remains uninjured, and they are kept from humidity, and so ventilated as not to ferment. With regard to the quality of this fruit in various places, there appears to be a diversity of opinion. Some consider those of Malta the best; others, those of St. Michael's; while others prefer those of Bahia, Havana, or of St. Augustine.
The Maltese orunges are usually large, the rind thick and spongy, and the glands which secrete the volatile oil
, are prominent. The pulp is red, and delicious, although, sometimes, there is a trace of bitterness in their taste. They are shipped in boxes, of an irregular size, and are generally packed in shavings or saw-dust.
The St. Michael's oranges are of a small size, the rind is thin and smooth, the glands small, which secrete but little volatile oil, the pulp light-coloured, and of a delicious, sugary taste. They are put up in boxes of three hundred and fifty to four hundred, with each fruit enveloped in paper, or in the husks of maize.
The celebrated Navel oranges of Bahia, are of difficult transport to Europe and the United States, in consequence of the length of the voyage, and of the humidity and warmth of the climate through which they have to pass. If they are gathered green, however, and suspended in the air above deck, or at the stern of the vessel, in netting, they will endure through the voyage.
The Havana oranges are usually of a good size, with a moderately rough rind, and a pulp well filled with delicious juice. From the shortness of the voyage to any of the American markets, they may be safely transported during the winter months. The fruit is ripe in Cuba at the end of October, and is usually shipped in barrels of two hundred and fifty to four hundred fruits in each, put up loosely, without any envelopes.
The St. Augustine oranges are superior, both in size and quality, to those of Cuba, or the Mediterranean. They resemble those of Havana in flavour, but are much larger, and bring from twenty to thirty per cent more, in the New York and Boston markets. Of the smaller sizes, it requires about three hundred fruits to fill a barrel, but of the largest ones, only one hundred are necessary.
In Europe, the Valencia oranges are eagerly sought after, on account of their early appearance, large size, and beautiful colour. They are put up in boxes of two hundred and twenty to two hundred and forty fruits in each, enveloped in brown paper.
The Sicilian oranges, and those of the south of Italy, may be regarded as nearly of the same quality. They are of a medium size, with a fine colour, and are rather acid in their flavour. Those shipped from Messina are put up in boxes of two hundred to two hundred and ten fruits in each, and those of Palermo, which mature later, are shipped in boxes of three hundred or more fruits in each. The oranges of Reggio ripen very early, so much so, that it is not unusual to send them away by the 20th of October. They are packed in boxes of two hundred and forty fruits in each, and like most of the oranges of the Mediterranean, are enveloped in paper.
The Provence oranges come to great perfection, and may be classed with those of Genoa. Along the river Var, they have two harvests of the orange, the first commencing from the 10th to the 15th of November, when the fruit begins to turn, and continues till the 4th of December; the second begins about the 10th of January, and is prolonged nearly to the end of February. They are put up in boxes of one hundred and twenty to three hundred and sixty fruits in each, according to their size and qualities.
With the Seville oranges may be classed those of Faro, St. Ubes, Oporto, Andalusia, Malaga, and the bitter oranges of Cuba and Florida. This fruit is usually of a good size, of a beautiful colour, but unfit to eat, on account of its bitter flavour. Those shipped from Seville are put up in large boxes, of one thousand fruits in each; while those of Faro and St. Ubes are badly packed, in cases of three hundred to three hundred and fifty in each. Those of Spain and Portugal are principally carried to England and the Baltic, and are employed in cookery, and in the manufacture of cordials and other aromatic liquors. The essential product of the fruit is in the rind or peel; it is cut into quarters, separated from the pulp, and caused to be quickly dried. It is much used in Holland in aromatizing a certain liquor, called curaçoa. In East Florida, the immediate vicinity of a wild orange grove, is of some importance to the planters. They collect the fruit, extract the juice by horse-mills, and send it off to different markets, where it is used as an ingredient in cooling drinks. The fruit is sometimes given by them to their horses, which seem to eat it with relish. In Cuba it is much used by the inhabitants in the cure of fluxes, intermittent, and other fevers. In France, in the department of the Var, and particularly at Grasse, the flowers of the Seville orange are brought into use. A volatile oil is listilled from them, called neroli, the colour of which varies from a reddish-yellow to a deep red. It is very fluid, of an agreeable odour, and is chiefly employed in pharmacy and in perfumery. For the latter purpose, this variety is superior to the ordinary orange.
Deritation. The word Acer signifies in Latin, hard or sharp, and is derived from the Celtic, ac, a point. The name is sup posed to be applied to this genus because the wood of some species is extremely hard, and was much sought after by the ancients for the purpose of making pikes and lances. Generic Characters. Sexes hermaphrodite, or moneciously polygamous. Flowers with a calyx and corolla. Calyx divided into 5 parts, or some number between 4 and 9. Petals the same in number. Stamens 8, or some number between 5 and 12. Anthers 2-lobed. Carpels 2, very rarely 3, each a samara; that is, a fruit, which is called, in England, vernacularly, a key. Leaves lobed and toothed, or, rarely, neither lobed nor toothed. Flowers generally yellow, with more or less green blended with the yellow; red in Acer rubrum.-Loudon, Arboretum.
HE species of this genus are chiefly low and middle-sized decid
uous trees, highly ornamental, and valuable in some kinds, for their timber, and in others, for the sugar they produce. The flowers are not individually conspicuous, but interesting in those species which put forth at leafing-time, from their number
and rarity, and from the enlivening effect of the numerous bees, and other insects, that generally attend them at that season. The tips of the wings of the samaræ of several of the European kinds are of a light-red, at the end of summer, and in. autumn. It is in this genus too, that we early observe the sylvan beau, weary of his summer suit, first shifting his dress to ochrey shades, then trying a deeper tint, and, lastly assuming an orange or scarlet vest. The larger-growing species are often many years before they come into flower, and even then, they do not mature their seeds for several seasons, probably from being only of one sex. In general, it may be observed, that there is great uncertainty, in the different species of acer, with regard to sex.
Geography and History. The genus acer is confined to Europe, North America, northern India, and to southern Russia, in Asia.
The ancients held the maple in great esteem; and tables inlaid with curious portions of it, or formed entirely of its finely variegated wood, in some instances brought their weight in gold. To such a height did the fondness of the Romans for curious woods, carry them at one period of their history, that their tables were even more expensive than the jewels of their ladies. Maple dishes are frequently mentioned by the Latin poets, and Virgil celebrates the maple, as the throne of the good Evander," and its branches as the canopy under which he received and seated Æneas :
« On sods of turf he sat the soldiers round;
Cowper, and many modern poets, also mention bowls of maple as being used by shepherds and hermits. Pliny gives an elaborate account of the properties and uses of the maple. He enumerates ten different kinds that were known to