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DE CANDOLLE, Prodromus.
Epine vinette du Canada,
Engravings. Audubon, Birds of America, pl. clxxxviii.; Loudon, Arboretum Britannicum, figure 48; and the figures below. Specific Characters. Spines 3-parted. Leaves obovate-oblong, remotely serrated, upper ones nearly
entire. Raceines many-flowered, nodding.- Don, Miller's Dict.
Description. HE Canadian Berberry is a low shrub, not exceeding five feet in height, with stems, roots, and flowers yellow, as in the preceding species. The leaves are much smaller and
narrower, attenuate at the base, but nearly sessile. The flowers which put forth in May and June, are also smaller than those of the Berberis vulgaris, and the fruit is smaller and shorter, of a red colour, and less sour. It grows on fertile hills, and among rocks, especially in the Alleghany Mountains, and, on the authority of Pursh, it is found in Canada. Torrey and Gray remark that, “ This indigenous species, very distinct from the Berberis vulgaris, with which it has been in some degree confounded, is probably a native of the southern states only; the barberry of the New England states, and, doubtless, of Canada, being the European species, and certainly not indigenous. Our species was first noticed, apparently, by Marshall, who states that he has a different species of barberry growing near New River, Virginia. Original specimens, collected and named by Pursh, exist in the herbarium of the late Professor Barton, now deposited in the rooms of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.". This shrub was cultivated in England in 1759.
Generic Characters. Calyx 5-parted. Petals 5. Stamens numerous, free, or somewhat polyadelphous.
Ovary globose, villous, 1-styled, 5-celled; cells 2-ovuled. Nut coriaceous, 1-celled, 1-2-seeded, from abortion.-Don, Miller's Dict.
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A HE genus Tilia consists of timber trees, with mellifluous flowers, 2 with a remarkable bractea attached to the peduncle of each of the
cymes of the flowers. The number of species varies, according to
the opinion of botanists, from two to ten. As there is great uncer
s tainty respecting the number, owing to the imperfect manner in He
which several of them have been heretofore described, we shall adopt only two species, and include them all under Tilia europæa, and americana. The most obvious external differential characteristics of these two species appear to be, that the former have regularly cordate, and the latter, obliquely cordate leaves.
planted in a dry soil. It unfolds its leaves at Naples at the end of March ; in England in the middle of April ; and at Upsula, in Sweden, and at New York, about the first of May. At the two last-named places it loses its leaves early in autumn, while at Naples it remains in full foliage during November. In Holland, where the linden abounds, the whole country, during the months of July and August, is perfumed by the fragrance of its flowers.
Varieties. "The extensive distribution,” says Loudon, "and long cultivation of this tree in Europe, have given rise to the following races or varieties, described by De Candolle, and others, as species; from which high authority, it may be considered presumption in us to differ; but we have not done so without due consideration, and after having examined the living plants of different ages and in different situations, with the greatest care and attention.”
1. T. E. MICROPHYLLA, Loudon. Small-leaved European Lime-tree, in England; Tilleul à petites feuilles, in France; and Kleinblättrige Linde, or Winterlinde, in Germany. The petals of this variety are without scales; the leaves cordate, roundish, acuminated, sharply serrated, smooth above, glaucous, and bearded beneath on the axils of the veins, as well as in hairy blotches; the fruit is rather globose, hardly ribbed, very thin and brittle. This variety is distinguishable, at first sight, from all others, by the smallness of its leaves, which are only two inches broad, and sometimes scarcely longer than their slender footstalks. The flowers are also much smaller than in any of the other varieties; and they are very fragrant, having a scent like those of the honeysuckle. This appears to be the linden-tree of Gerard, the timber of which, he says, “is much harder and more knotty, and more yellow, than the timber of the other sort; and not very different from the timber of the elm-tree.” In Worcestershire, England, between Horford and Ombersley, there is a tree of this variety estimated at upwards of three hundred years of age, which is seventy feet high, with a circumference of thirty feet, at three yards above the ground.
2. T. E. PLATYPHYLLA, Loudon. Broad-leaved European Lime-tree, in England; Tilleul à grandes feuilles, or Tilleul de Hollande, in France. The petals of this variety are without scales; the leaves cordate, roundish, acuminated, sharply serrated, downy beneath, origin of their veins woolly ; branches hairy; cymes three-flowered; fruit woody, downy, turbinate, with 'five prominent angles. This tree can readily be distinguished by its large, rough leaves, and also by its rough bark, and hispid branches. At Syon, near London, there is a tree of this variety, supposed to have been planted about ninety years, and is nearly eighty feet high.
3. T. E. RUBRA, Loudon. Red-twig ged European Lime-tree. This variety is distinguished by the redness of its young branches, and it may be properly considered as a sub-variety of the two preceding. In Sweden, where linden woods extend over the low parts of the country for many miles together, the common lime-tree is met with, in some places, perhaps, for a mile together, with the twigs bright red, yellow in some, and in others quite green; from which we may infer that there is also a yellow-twigged variety, or sub-variety. Several similar coincidences occur in England among the cultivated varieties.
4. T. E. LACINIATA, Loudon. Cut-leaved European Lime-tree. The leaves of this variety are smaller than those of the common species, and deeply and irregularly cut and twisted, scarcely two on the tree being alike. This variety seldom, if ever, exceeds thirty feet in height.
5. T. 2. AUREA, Loudon. Golden-twigged European Lime-tree. This variety differs from the common lime-tree in the yellowness of its twigs; and, apparently, is not so vigorous in its growth as any of the other varieties, except the T. e. laciniata.
6. T. E. PLATYPHYLLA AUREA. Golden-twigged Broad-leaved European Lime
Denmal and nor and this not
tree. This variety differs from the common broad-leaved lime in no other respect than in the yellow colour of its twigs.
7. T. E. DASYSTYLA. Hairy-styled European Lime-tree. This variety is described as having petals without scales; leaves smooth, somewhat hairy at the base beneath; axils of veins bearded; style tomentose.
8. T. E. ALBA, Loudon. White-leaved European Lime-tree, in England; Tilleul blanc, in France; Weisse Linde, in Germany. Each of the petals of this variety has a scale at the base, inside ; the leaves are cordate, somewhat acuminated, and rather unequal at the base, serrated, clothed with white down beneath, but smooth above, and four times longer than the petioles; the fruit is ovate, with five obscure ribs. This tree is at once distinguishable from all other varieties by the white appearance of its foliage, even at a considerable distance, and by the strikingly snowy hue of its leaves, when ruffled by the wind. Its wood and shoots resemble those of the common lime; but it does not attain the same height. There is a good specimen of this tree at Walton, upon the Thames, sixty feet high; and several others at High Clere, in Berkshire, some of which, in forty years, have attained a height of upwards of sixty feet.
9. T. E. ALBA PETIOLARIS, Loudon. Long-petioled-leaved European Lime-tree. This tree is described by De Candolle from dried specimens, without flower or fruit, and is probably only a sub-variety of T. e. alba.
There is another variety, with varigated leaves, but it is such a ragged, illlooking plant, that it is not deemed worthy of culture.
Geography and History. The Tilia europæa appears to be confined to the central and northern parts of Europe. It is found wild in northern Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Bohemia, and, according to Pallas, throughout the whole of Russia, and a great part of Siberia. According to Watson, it is common all over Britain, and in the south-western, north-eastern, and north-western counties of Ireland. The T. e. platyphylla is said to inhabit Sweden, and most parts of Europe, as far south as the Alpine regions of Switzerland, and Spain. The T. e. microphylla appears to be indigenous chiefly in the north of Germany, in Sweden, and Russia ; also in the south-eastern and north-eastern counties of Eng land, and north-western counties of Scotland. At Shawley, eight miles northwest from Worcester, England, there is a wood of about five hundred acres in extent, the greater part of the undergrowth of which, is of this variety. So extensive a tract in Britain, covered with the linden, strongly tends to prove that this tree is truly indigenous. It is said, however, that the lime seldom, if ever, ripens its seeds in England, which would operate unfavourably to its reproduction. The T. e. alba is found in the woods in Hungary, where it is rare, and also near Constantinople, whence it was introduced into England in 1767, and planted at Mile End.
The European lime-tree has long been cultivated for ornament and shade, both in the United States and in the British American provinces.
The lime-tree appears to have been known to the Greeks and Romans. Theophrastus, Homer, Horace, Virgil, Columella, and Pliny mention it, and celebrate its bark and wood. According to Theophrastus, it is of both sexes, which are totally different as to form ; probably referring to the small-leaved and largeleaved varieties. The leaves, he says, are sweet, and are used as food for most kinds of cattle. This tree was highly esteemed by the Romans for its shade; and, according to Pliny, for the numerous uses to which its wood might be applied. In modern times, the lime-tree was one of the first to attract the attention of dendrological writers previously to the time of Linnæus, who describes only two species, Tilia europæa and americana. M. Ventenat, in 1798, described three European species, and three American ones; and De Candolle has described ten. Evelyn, speaking of the lime-tree, says, “ It is a shameful negligence that we are