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The UNIVERSAL Magazine for August, 1796.


Some Account of the City of Orleans, and its Environs : With a

beautiful Perspective View of the Chapel of St. MESME, on tbe Banks of the River Loire,

HE celebrated city of Orleans, nued to be an episcopal fee, fuffragan

lent, and considerable in France, is has a society of natural philosophy, the capital of the department of the natural history, &c. and a public liLoiret, which, during the existence brary. The environs of this city are of the monarchy, was styled the pro- very plealant; particularly the fauxvince of Orleanois. It is feated on bourg or suburb of Olivet, which is the right bank of the river Loire, on the left side of the Loire, and has thirty miles northeast of Blois, and a communication with the city by a fixty south-southwest of Paris. It is bridge, the boldness and lightness of built in the form of an oval, and is which are equally admired. It was supposed to contain forty thousand built by Lewis the fifteeth, and consouls. Under the fons of king Clovis, fifts of nine arches, of which the centre it was the capital of a kingdom. It one is one hundred feet wide. On has stood two memorable fieges; the this bridge was placed the statue of first, in the year 451, against the the unfortunate Joan of Arc (with formidable Attila; the second, in 1428, boots and spurs like a knight) on her agairft the English ; which last was knees before the Virgin Mary, who raised by the celebrated Joan of Arc, has Jesus Christ in her arms, as if gocalled the Maid of Orleans, whose ing to lay him in his tomb; and, ophistory and tragical end display, in polite to Joan, in the fame posture, is such 'horrid colours, the ignorance, king Charles the seventh. Thele fisuperstition, and cruelty of that gures (the fuperftition and execution age. The principal church of Or- of which are equally contemptible) leans, in that part of it which is were taken from the old demolished finithed, exhibits a noble specimen of bridge. At a distance, the mall, and the Gothic architecture. During the other trees planted in various paces reign of superstition, Jesus Christ was along the rampart, give to Orleans considered as the first canon of its late the appearance of a city half inclosed chapter, and, as such, had a double by verdant walls. share in all the distributions, which About nine miles southwest of Orwas given to the Hotel Dieu. The leans, is the village of Clery, once streets of Orleans are spacious, neat, famous for the pilgrimage to our Lady and pleasant : that of the fauxbourg of Clery. Here is the tomb of that of Paris is of a prodigious length. monster, Lewis the eleventh of France, The commerce of Orléans consists in who appears on his knees, in white wine, brandy, corn, grocery, and marble, with figures emblematic both particularly sugar, which is brought of the faint and of the patriot king.; coarse from Nantes and Rochelle. In the environs of Orleans, there

with another, one hundred are likewise many places remarkable thousand cwts. of loaf-sugar are sent for picturesque and beautiful scenery: from the sugar-bakers in Orleans; a One of these, on the banks of the great part of which is purchased by Loire, is the ancient chapel of St. the merchants of Paris. Sheep-skins, Meimé, a perspective view of which and stockings (both knit and woven) is annexed. When and where this form also a considerable article, of sa'nt existed, and what entitled him to trade. After the new geographical canonization, we cannot ascertain ; divifion of France into departments, and, perhaps, the question is not very instead of provinces, Orleans conti- material. The reign of superstition VOL. xcix.


One year

is now destroyed in France; and al- also for its noble canal and extensive though the contrary extreme, the fa- forest. The canal commences at the naticism and bigotry of infidelity, may river Loire, about two leagues above triumph for a time, we trust that can- the city, crosses the forest of Orleans, did and impartial, as well as free and joins the river Loing near Montargis, unfettered inquiry, will at length pro- and, passing by Nemours, enters the dučė the happiest effects. Chrif- river Seine. It was finished in 1682, tianity, stripped of all the false and and has thirty locks in its course, adventitious ornaments with which which is about eighteen leagues in exSuperstition had decked it, will rise tent.—The forest, which is near the again, we hope, from the ruins of in- city, contains one hundred thoufand discriminating destruction, and appear acres planted with oak and other vato admiring nations in all its native luable trees. It is one of the most purity and excellence—the hope and considerable forests in France; and the consolation of the afflicted, the joy sales of its timber and underwood proand animating spirit of the happy! duce annually one hundred thousand

The environs of Orleans are famous livres.

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OBSERVATIONs on the Origin and Use of NAVAL SIGNALS.

HEN we read at our fire-side are struck with wonder, and can hardly or other interesting operation of an on reflection, they see the possibility army, our attention is generally - fo of the thing. Their imagination acmuch engaged by the results, that we companies the messenger from the inngive but little attention to the move yard to the scene of action ; they hear ments which led to them, and produced the general's orders delivered, and them, and we seldom form to ourselves they expect its execution. any distinct notion of the conduct of But when we think for a moment the day. But a professional man, or on the situation of the commander of one accufomed to reflection, and who a fleet, confined on board one ship, is not satisfied with the mere indulgence and this ship as much, or more closely, of eager curiosity, follows every regi- engaged, than any other of the fleet; ment in its movements, endeavours to and when we reflect that here are see their connexion, and the influ- no messengers ready to carry his ora ence which they have had on the fate ders to ships of the squadron at the of the day, and even to form to him, distance of miles from him, and to self a general notion of the whole scene deliver them with precision and difof action at its different interesting pe- tinctness ; and that even if this were riods. He looks with the eye of the possible by sending small ships or boats, general, and sees his orders succeed or the viciffitudes of wind and weather fait.

may render the communication so tedi'But few trouble themselves fartherous that the favourable moment may about the narration. The movement be irretrievably lolè before the order is ordered ; it is performed; and the can be conveyed—when we think, fortune of the day is determined. Few I say, of all these circumstances, our think how all this is brought about ; thoughts are bewildered, and we are and when they are told that during ready to imagine that a sea-battle is the whole of the battle of Custrin, nothing but the unconnected struggle Frederic the Great was in the upper of individual siips; and that when the room of a country inn, from whence admiral has once cried havoc, and he could view the whole field, while let slip the dogs of war,' he has done his aides-de-camp, on horseback, wait- all that his situation empowers him to ed his orders in the yard below, they do, and must leave the fate of the

day to the bravery and kill of his had signals by which they directed the captains and failors.

movements of their fleets. We read, Yet it is in this fituation, apparently that when Ægeus sent his son Theseus the most unfavourable, that the orders to Crete, it was agreed on, that if of the commander can be conveyed, the ship Thould bring the young prince with a dispatch that is not attainable back in safety, a white flag should be in the operations of a land army, displayed. But those on board, in The scene of action is unincumbered, their joy on revisiting their country so that the eye of the admiral can be after their perilous voyage, forgot hold the whole without interruption. to hoist the concerted signal

. The The movements which it is poflible to anxious father was every day expectexecute are few, and they are precise. ing the ship which should bring back A few words are sufficient to order his darling son, and had gone to the them, and then the mere fighting the shore to look out for her. He saw ships must always be left to their re- her, but without the signal agreed on. spective commanders. This fimpli- On which the old man threw himself city in the duty to be performed has into the sea. We find, too, in the enabled us to frame a language fully history of the Punic wars by Polybius, adequate to the business in hand, by frequent allusions to such a mode of which a correspondence can be kept communication; and Ammianus Marup as far as the eye can see. This is cellinus speaks of the speculatores and the language of signals, a language by vexillarii, who were on board the writing, addressed to the eye, and ships in the Adriatic. The coins both which he that runneth may read. As of Greece and Rome exhibit both flags in common writing certain arbitrary and streamers. In short, we cannot marks are agreed on to express cer- doubt of the ancients having practised tain sounds used in speech, or rather, this kieroglyphical language. It is as in hieroglyphics certain arbitrary fomewhat surprising that lord Dudley, marks are agreed on to express certain in his · Arcano del Mare, in which thoughts, or the subjects of these he makes an ostentatious display of thoughts ; so here certain exhibitions his knowledge of every thing connectare made, which are agreed on to ex- ed with the sea service, makes no express certain movements to be executed press mention of this very essential by the commander to whom they are piece of knowledge, although he must, addressed, and all are enjoined to keep by his long residence in Italy, have their eyes fixed on the ship of the con- known the marine discipline of the ductor of the fleet, that they may learn Venetians and Genoese, the greatest his will.

maritime powers

then in Europe. It is scarcely poffible for any num In the naval occurrences of modern ber of ships to act in concert, without Europe, mention is frequently made some such mode of communication be- of signals. Indeed, as

we have altween the admiral anl the commanders ready observed, it seems impossible of private ships. We have no direct for a number of ships to act in any information of this circumftance in the kind of concert, without some method naval tactics of the ancient nations, of communication. Numberless situathe Greeks and Romans; yet the ne- tions muft occur, when it would be cellity of the thing is fo apparent, that impossible to convey orders or inwe cannot fuppose it to have been formation by messengers from one omitted by the most ingenious and the ship to another, and coast and alarm most cultivated people who have ap- signals had long been practised by peared on the great theatre of the every nation. The idea was, thereworld; and we are persuaded that fore, familiar. We find, in particuThemistocles, Conon, and other re- lar, that queen Elizabeth, on occanowned sea commanders of Athens, fion of the expedition to Cadiz, ore

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