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others, he pushes with more resolute and with it another adjournment, determination toward that state of ele- which is continued from day to day, vation, which will command the filence until months having elapsed in fruitless at least, if not the respect of the vul- application, he first fufpects, and then gar. He that wishes to profit by a becomes certain, that he has been degreat man, must endeavour to please ceived, and that he has spent his him, and it is happy for him indeed, time, the little money he had, and if he is not' required to sacrifice his in- all the court hip he was master of, tegrity as a preliminary condition. merely to have the honour of adding

Great men, who dispense their fa- to the list of those on whom the great vours without regard to merit, are man exercises his skill in avoiding imcertain to have the greatest number portunity, and teaching patience. Hapof dep ndents. They are of all others py would it be for many, if they even the moit courted, because the access now saw the fallacy of trusting to the to them is the eatieit. It is but flat- promises of great men, and had a tering their foibles, submitting to their portion of spirit remaining; too great caprices, and praising them for the to submit to further indigrities. But yirtues they ought to possess, and fuc- very unaccountably, fome men seem to cefs need not be despaired of. find that expectation on the great is

But if a man of merit applies to such pleasant, and fome that it is genteel. a patron, the question is, · What is I have juft met with a story in the your name, fir ?' in a fullen tone of life of the celebrated John, duke of contempt and authority. If letters Argyle, who died some years ago, are produced from friends, fuch as the which I cannot help transcribing, as great man would not wish to disoblige it is not inapplicable to the subject in by an immediate refusal, the applicant hand, and might afford an excellent is told that he will take the matter into precedent for great men, and perhaps confideration, and in the mean time, convey some instruction to little men.

he will be glad to see him,' which, If great men attended to it, the miin the language of greatness, implies feries of delay and independence would that he hopes he has seen him for the be greatly alleviated, and they who last time. The novice, however, has waste the prime, of their days in courtnot yet learned any other meaning for ing the favour of the great, acquire a words than he finds in his dictionary; portion of ill-humour which never he calls again, receives a promise, leaves them, or fall into despair from and takes his leave with all the ele- accumulated mortifications, would be vation of hope, and writes to his rescued from a pursuit so unworthy of friends in the country an account of an active and independent mind, and his success.

apply to employments where success, The day soon arrives when he is by being connected with their own again to pay his respects to the great exertions, would be more within their man who is now lo extremely busy, power. and has been so for some days, that he This great statesman, John, duke of really has not had time to make the Argyle, was cautious not to decive proper applications, but if the peti- any by lavish promises, or leading tioner will call on Monday, he will them to form vain expectations ; of see what can be done.' – This still this, we have the following instance in pleases the dependent. He is flatter. the Bidgraphia Britannica. ed to think that the great man has not A young gentleman of North Briforgot him, that he keeps his case in tain, liberally educated, with a large mind, and amid all his weighty cares, fhare of natural parts, was sent up to is to condescend to make proper ap- London by his father, who had seve. plications to some higher quarter. The ral other children, and had advanced next day of meeting is announced, this son for this expedition as much as

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he could spare without beggaring his such a name and family; that he was family. He had consented to this in low circumstances, and heard that journey of his son, on the repeated such a'small place was now vacant, and promises of a certain peer of that coun- in' his grace's gift, therefore he took try, to put him into a handsome way the liberty to beg that his grace would of bread ; his reliance on this noble


him into it. The demand was so man's faith, made him iiretch a point uncommon, that his grace {made him to furnish his fon, since he looked up repeat it again, before he gave any anon that as bestowed in order to settle 'swer; and then he said, Sir, i know him for lif:.

your family very well, but don't flatFull of pleasing hopes of immedi- ter yourself with that; take for anatë preferment, our young adventurer fwer, that I will not give it you! The arrived at his patron's house, who re- young gentleman replied, God bless ceived him with open arms, and a your grace, this exactly answers the thousand protestations of serving him ; character I have heard of you.' but several months passed over, and These last words a little furprised nothing but promifes came ; years the duke, and he defired the young went away in the fame empty man man to explain himself, which he did ner ; every next month promised him by saying, that if another peer had happiness, but still it was as barren as been so honourable as to make him the last. The young gentleman had the same answer, upon his first applipaid levee to this little statesman, till cation to him, he would have been he had exhausted all his patrimony, now in a condition to live without and wearied all his relations, yet still making so odd an application as his he was enjoined patience, and promi- presling necessities obliged him just fed mountains.

now to make to his grace. His grace In the third or fourth year of this recollecting some circumstances he had attendance, this young gentleman was formerly heard, of the connexion bewalking very melancholy in Hyde- tween this young gentleman's family park, when he saw the duke of Argyle and his former patron, was moved alight from his coach, in order to with the unhappy youth's case. After take a walk. A thought struck into a short pause, he direcied him to call his head to address the duke, though at his house next day, and in lefs than an entire stranger to him, for a place three days, provided for him beyond in his giace s disposal in the ordnance, his expectations. depending on his runanity for suc I am, fir, yours, &c. ceis. He accolted his grace, told him

CONTENTUS Pakvo. he was a gentleman of his country, of

Account of the EARTHQUAK E felt in various parts of England,

November 18, 1795; with some Obfervations thereon. By Edward Whitaker Gray, M.D. F. R. S. Concluded from Page 339.

HAVING now laid before the so or whether, like a blast of wind, it ciety all the circumftances observed in had a progressive motion one way the late earthquake that appear to me only. to be worthy of their attention, I shall And first I must observe, that all proceed to make a few observations ideas of its direction, founded on the

; and particularly to exa- sensations of those who felt it, are fo mine how far it is poilible, by tracing vague and contradi&ory as to render the direction of the earthquaké, to it imposible to draw any conclufion determine whether it was produced by from them. Mr. Gregory, who in a central force acting in all directions, his letter says the blaft came from the

upon them

weit, says also, that people in general to occafion error on one side as on the seem confident that the shocks came other; and, when the whole is fairly from the northeast, but that many considered, it seems to me impossible think they came from the south ; and not to feel inclined to think that the that, to himself, the second shock ap- earthquake was felt confiderably later peared to come from the north. Dr. in the northeast than in the fouthweit; Storer says the direction appeared to in other words, that it moved prohim to be from the northeast to the gressively from the southwest to the southwest, but to others it appeared northealt, or nearly fo. the reverse. The accounts of the Suppofing, however, that some of earthquake's direction in the county the abovementioned observations of, newípapers are as various as the a- time are of too uncertain a nature to bove; but I think it needless to give admi: any inference to be drawn from any farther proofs of what I have ad- them, others among them are of a vanced, and shall only observe that, very diferent kind. Mr. Johnson, various as the opinions of those who whose accuracy may be fafely relied felt the earthquake were, with reipect on, appears to have remarked the time to its direction, the greater rumber of the earthquake with great precision, of persons agreed in thinking it to and he liates it to have been, at Kenilhave been from fome northern point worth, at fix minutes past eleven. toward a southern one; whicii, as we Mr. Gregory, to whose exactness we shall presently see, is as contrary as may equally trust, says the blast was poliible to that direction which is de- heard, at Wollaton, between twenty, duced from observations of the time and twenty-five minutes pafl eleven, and at which it was felt in different places. the earthquake came on about a mi

In the county papers, the earth- nute after the blaft. Now, if we supquake is said to have been felt at pole it to have been only twenty-one Bristol, and in some parts of Glou- mir utes patt eleven when the blast was cesterlhire, some minutes before ele- heard, it will bring the time of the

At Worcester, it is said (by earthquake to tweniy-two minutes paft Dr. Johnstone) to have been felt a- eleven; and, if we allow a minute bout eleven, or five minutes after. and a half for the difference of longiAt Kenilworth, in Warwickshire, (Mr. tude between Kenilworth and WollaJohnson) fix minutes after eleven. At, tồn, there will still remain an interval Alhover, in Derbyshire, (Mr. Milnes) of fourt en minutes and a half for its about a quarter past eleven. At progress from the first mentioned place Wirksworth, in the lame county, (Mr. to the latter. The distance between Bennet) about twenty minutes palt ele- these two places is about forty-five

And at Woliaton, in Notting- miles, and the situation of Wollaton, hamshire, (Mr. Gregory) between with respect to Kenilworth, is about twenty and twenty-five minutes paft noith northeast; confequently, the eleven *. From this, about five mi- observations of Mr. Johnson and Mr. nutes and a half are to be deducted, Gregory are, of themselves, fufficient for the difference of longitude between to render it probable (as far as obBristol and Wollaton. Great allow- ferva ions of time made in two places ance must likewise be made for the only can do to) that the direction of uncertainties which attend observations the earthquake was not very different of this kind, from the different man- 'from that above stated ; at least, that ner of keeping clocks, and from other it was from some point to the westcircumstances too obvious to be men- ward of fouth, toward some point to tioned; but it must be remembered, the eastward of north ; which, as was that those circumstances are as likely before observed,, is very contrary to

I have omitted mentioning the time expressed in one or two of the foregoing letters, because it appears not to have been observed with much atiention.



the idea which most persons who felt have induced some to suppose that it formed of its progress.

wind would prevent a certain accuThese two observations also, in my mulation in the atmosphere, which, opinion, furnith another argument according to their theory, is necessary that the earthquake moved progres- for the production of an earthquake. fively in one direction only; for, if Unfortunately for that theory, howeit had been produced by a central ver, there are more instances than force ating in all directions, we one of earthquakes having happened should surely have expected that the during a gale of wind *. effects of that force would have been Some persons thought this earthmost powerful where they were first quake was most feverely felt in high felt ; whereas, we have seen that the situations ; others remarked that fome earthquake, though undoubtedly more low places were just as much affected : severe in Nottinghamshire than in upon the whole, there does not seem Warwickshire, was felt much sooner room for any material inference on in the last mentioned county.

this head. Of the various earthquakes felt in That the waters about Nottingham England within this century, those to should not, according to Dr. Storer's which the one here treated of has most observation, have suffered any reanalogy are, that of September 30, markable agitation or elevation, may 1750; that of September 14, 1777; be thought surprising ; especially when and that of February 25, 1792. The it is recollected that the earthquake of earthquake of last year was of much November 1, 1755, which was so fagreater extent than either of the o- tal to the city of Lisbon, occasioned thers, consequently a much greater an unusual agitation of the waters in number of counties came within its various parts of this kingdom, without influence ; but there is, to a certain occafioning any perceptible motion of degree, a general analogy in the tract the earth in those parts. A fimilar of country, affected. It is also ob- circumfance, however, is recorded by fervable, that the direction assigned to M. Bertrand, respecting an earththe abovementioned three oformer quake which was very severe in many earthquakes, is nearly the same as that parts of Switzerland, on December 9, I have supposed to have been the di- 1755, but which, as he says, produced ©rection of the one here described. little or no agitation of the lakes This recurrence of earthquakes, in there ; whereas a very considerable former tracts, has been long observed one had been produced in them by the in all countries much subject to them; earthquake of November 1, in the and has, with great reason, been con- fame year, though it was but slightly sidered as a strong argument in fup- felt upon the earth. port of the opinion, that their cause is The wind felt in the mine at Alhosituate within the earth.

ver, was probably the effect of the It has also been observed in many blast mentioned by Mr. Gregory. Siearthquakes, as in this, that, whatever milar blasts have been taken notice of was the state of the wind some time in many other earthquakes : a rushing before, it was calm at the instant the wind is said to have accompanied that earthquake happened. This has in- felt in England, September 14, deed been so generally the case, as to 1777.

* Dr. Thomas Heberden, in his account of an earthquake felt in the island of Madeira, March 31, 1761, says, though it has been remarked that a calm always attends an earthquake, no fuch thing happened now; a fine gale of wind blowing before and after, as well as during the time of, the shock.' M. Bertrand also, speaking of an earthquake felt at Zuric, December 9, 1755, says, “Le tremblement étoit accom. pagné d'un vent violent, que quelques personnes ont apperçu dès le commencement, d'autres à la fin des ébranlemens.'

With respe& to the other unu- tive power, as to be incapable of pro(wal atmospherical circumstances with ducing what is truly considered as the which this earthquake was accompa- most dreadful of all natural phænonied, I shall only observe, that similar mena *. ones, particularly black denfe clouds, The foregoing reflections are of. coruscations in the air, &c, have been fered as naturally arising from the noticed in feveral other earthquakes : confideration of the account here giyet, upon the whole, perhaps few ven, and by no means as taking either have been attended with more re- side of the great question, whether markable circumstances of that kind. earthquakes are to be considered as How far they were corne&ted with terrestrial or as aerial phænomena. A the earthquake, it is impoflibie to de- question which appears to me to be termine ; be that as it may, it muft involved in the greatest obfcurity ; be allowed that they appeared to be and this obscurity seems to arise, not so, to such a degree as very naturally so much from a want of arguments on to incline those who noticed them to either side, as from the arguments on be of opinion, that the cause of the both sides being so many, and so earthquake was situate in the atmos- strong, that the mind hesitates less phere.. Upon this head I cannot help which fide to choose, than which to remarking, that those who entertain reject. For as, on the one hand, that opinion respecting the cause of there are many circumstances attendearthquakes, seem always to conclude ing on earthquakes, (particularly their that the electric fuid must, in that frequent recurrence, in many parts cafe, necessarily be the agent. This, of the world, in the same tract,) on I think, is going too far : we surely do which it is impoffible to reflect, and not know enough of the nature of the not feel disposed to believe their atmosphere to warrant us in making cause situated in the earth; so, on; such a conclufion; and what we do the other hand, it seems equally imknow of ele&tricity (either natural or possible to reflect on the unusual ata artificial) rather leads us to conceive mospherical appearances, with which: that the electric Auid is formidable the earthquake here described anct only when concentrated, or collected many others have been accompanied , within a certain space, and moving and suppose all those appearances with infinite velocity ; consequently merely accidental, and unconnected its effects are limited in their extent, with the earthquakes. It is not, hovyand it is instantaneous in its operation. ever, my intention to enter into a riWhereas earthquakes have, more than nute examination of this part of the once, extended their effects over im- subject ; but I cannot refrain from mense portions of the globe ; and hinting, that those who


herealiter they appear to move (sometimes at be inclined to do so would perhaps: do 'leaft) with a degree of flowness of right to begin by inquiring, whether which we cannot suppose the electric all commotions of the earth whicla go Auid capable, without fuppofing it under the name of earthquakes are thereby so far divested of its destruc- really produced by the same cause to

. Of the flowness here spoken of, the earthquake described in the foregoing pages affords sufficient example, particularly in its progress from Kenilworth to Wollaton ; (see page 397) but, in the account of an earthquake felt near Oxford, June 19, 1665, it is said, that . Dr. Holder, F. R. S, who was then at Blechington, tork notice that it was observed by those in the further part of the garden, some very di scernible time before it was observed by those in the house, creeping forward from the ou le place to the other.'

+ To prove that this is not an unnecessary inquiry, it might perhaps be sufficient to refer to what has been said respecting the agitation of the waters ; (page : 398) but, as

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