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that are known to produce similar ef: irresistibly to direct our inquiries to fects; yet it must be admitted, that those sudden revolutions to which so many circumstances in the preceding valt a mass of elastic and heterogeneous account conspire to conneet the con- fluid is liable.' cussion with the very fingular state of the atmosphere accompanying it, and
[To be concluded in our next.)
OBSERVATIONS on the Ill Effects of too great Number of Public
Houses in the Metropolis. In our Magazine for March 1796, Page 209, we inserted • A general. View
of the prominent Causes of the Increase of Crimes in the Meíropolis. This was extraéled from the first Edition of an excellent Work then publijhed, and entitled "A Treatise on the Police of the Metropolis.' This Work has reached a third Edition ; and to the Chapter concerning the Increase of Crimes, alluded to above, the truly public-pirited Author * has fince added fome Confiderations er the Public Houses in the Metropolis, which are certainly of the bigbeft Importance to the Community at large, and are inserted here as fupplemental to the Extra:7 already given. Indeed, the recent Airocities, lately comm.tted, in fome of them +, call aloud for the moje immediate Regulations. IT T is truly melancholy to reflect home, to educate children, and to rear
upon the abject condition of the them up with a proper regard to their numerous class of profigate parents, health and morals, so as to render them who with their children, are constant- useful, in tead of mischievous members ly to be found in the taprooms of pub- of the community, is, from invincible lic-houses, spending in two days, as and growing habit, squandered in pubmuch of their earnings as would sup- lic houses. port them a week comfortably in their The period is not too remote to be own dwellings; destroying their health; recolleaed, when it was thought a diswasting their time ; and rearing up grace for a woman (excepting on hotheir children to be prostitutes and liday occasions) to be seen in the tap.. thieves before they know that it is a room cf a public-house : but of late crime.
years the obloquy has lost its effect, In the city of London, and within since it is to be lamented, that the the bills of mortality, there are at public tap-rooms of many alehouses present 5204 licensed public houses, are filled with men, women and chiland it is calculated that the beer and dren, on all occasions, where the wages spirits which are consumed in these re- of labour is too often exchanged for ceptacies of idleness and profligacy by indulgencies ruinous to health, and the labouring people only, is little for leffons of profligacy and vice, toshort of three millions ferling a year! tally destructive of the morals of the
A moment's relection will thew adults as well as of the rising generahow much these unfortunate habits . tion. tend to destroy the moral principle, In tracing the causes of the increase and to engender crimes.
of public depredation by means of The fact is, that a large propor- robberies, pilferings, and frauds, tion of those earnings which would much must be attributed to ill-reguenable a family to be comfortable at lated public-houses.. "Patrick Colquhourt, esq. one of the magiftrates of the police office in Worthip. treet, Shoreditch:
† Sce'our Hiltorical Chronicle for the present month.
Instead of entrusting licences only becomes the ground work of the þftem, to men of fober manners and of good and deferves infinite attention in the moral character, a little enquiry will proper selection of persons fit to be few that a considerable proportion of entrusted with licences ; for on this the present ale-house keepers in the depends the preservation of the morals metropolis are men of no respectabi- of the people, in a greater degree lity; disposed to promote drunken- than any one measure proposed in the ness, low games, and every species of course of this work. vice and imúlorality that can be the The chief fource of this evil arises means of increasing their trade ; while from the number of immoral, proflinot a few of them are connected with' gate, and criminal characters, who highwaymen, common thieves, and procure such fituations, and who grosscoiners, venders and utterers of base ly abuse the trust reposed in them ; money.
and the cause is to be traced to the An ill-regulated public-house is 'one number of superAuous houses which of the greatest nuisances which can ex- have been inadvertently licensed. ilt in civil society. Through this me Of these there are seldom less than dium, crimes are increased in an emi- one thousand who change masters eve. nent degree. Its poison spreads far ry year in the metropolis alone, and and wide. It may be truly said to be many of them three or four times 0a seminary for rearing up rogues and ver. vagabonds.
The result is, that while so many It is in such houses that thieves and public-houses are constantly at marfraudulent persons find an asylum, and ket, worthless and profligate characconsult how and where they are to ters get into such fituations; and it commit depredations on the public. will cver be the case, while no limits It is here that apprentices, and boys are set to the number in each district, and girls of tender years, are to be and while the present mockery of secufound engaged in scenes of lewdness 'rity is ir practice, by permitting one and debauchery; and, in fine, it is in publican to be bound for another in such places, where almost every vice the small penalty of ten pounds, for which disturbs or interrupts the peace the performance of duties, the moft and good order of society, has its o important and sacred which are known rigin*.
to exist in civil society, since a breach The proper regulation, therefore, of them faps the foundation of all moof those haunts of idleness and vice rals t.
* It has been lately discovered, that clubs of apprentice boys are harboured in publichouses, for the purpose of supporting their brethren who run away from their masters, and of indulging themfelves early in the scenes of lewdness and drunkenness, which they generally do by pilfering their malter's property, and disposing of it at the old-iron shops. In this situation, from being an apprentice to a lawful trade, they, in general, become the apprentices of thieves, who resort to such houses to find boys fit for their purpole.
+ In a tract, entitled, Obfervations and Facts relative to Public- Houses,' the evils arising from ill-regulated publichouses are explained at considerable length, and several reme. dies propoled. In this publication the consumption of ale and porter annually in the metropolis and its environs, is stated to be 1,132,147 barrels, equal to 36,625,145 gallons, making 158,400,580 pots at 3 d.
£2,311,466 15 10 Ard hy another calculation, the average consumption of gin and on sounds in public houses, previous to the Itoppage of the d.ouliery, was about 3,000,000 of gallons
£3,286,466 15 10 If a conclu cn may be drawn frem the apparent greater degree of lobriety, which
Of how much importance therefore The foundation of all good police is it for magistrates to establish cor- rests upon those wise regulations which tect systems for watching over the the clergy and the magistrates thall conduct of publicans and for regula- carry into execution for the preservating public-houses? Every thing that tion of morals, and the prevention of tends to the prevention of crimes ; crimes. to the comfort and happiness of the It is earnestly to be hoped, that labouring people ; and to the essential those who have the charge of parishes interest of the state in what regards will lend their aid in a greater degree, the morals and the health of the lower by a more immediate attention to the ranks of the community, in checking condition of the poor, by regularly the prevailing propensity to drunken- visiting their abodes, and by proper ness, gaming, and idleness, depends, religious instructions in their families: in a great measure, on the vigilance for certain it is, that if the prevailing and attention of the civil magiftrates, and increasing immorality and prowhose powers to do good in this re- Aligacy `among the lower orders of spect are extremely ample, and only the people are not checked, very require to be exerted with attention, serious consequences are to be dreadmildness, and prudence, joined to ed t. firmness and good judgment *. is manifested at present by the labouring people, and evinced by the number of quarrels and assaults being very considerably diminished, and the pressure, with respect to the means of living, apparently less than in the fpring of 1795, notwithstanding no charities have been distributed, and bread is considerably higher : it would seem reasonable to attribute this favourable change to the high price of gin, which being in a great meafure inaccessible, the lower ranks have it now in their power to apply the money formerly spent in this way in the purchase of proviliuns - perhaps to the extent of some hundred thousand pounds a year in the metropolis alone! If this fact is assumed, it is impollible to reflect without great fatisfaction on the actual gain wbich results to the nation from the preservation of the healths of persons whole lives are shortened by the immoderate use of ardent spirits. In the labour of aduits, the benefit to the nation is at least one hundred fold in length of life, and productive industry, wherever sobriety pei vades the mass of the people.
* The following propositions are suggested as likely to aid the magistrates considerably in their exertions, io reform the public-houses in case they shall obtain the sanction of the legiNature.
1. That the number of public houses assigned to each licensing division shall be limited by law, and no new houses thall be licensed unless there shall be an increase of inhabitants (by means of an accession of buildings or manufactories in the neighbourhood) equal to 150 individuals, including those employed in public works.
2. That no person shall be licensed until he can produce a responsible housekeeper, who is not a publican, who will enter into a recognizance along with him, for his good behaviour, in the sum of fifty pounds, which shall be forfeited if he permits gaming, drunkenness, or any other irregularities, which shall be specified in the recognizance, the form and obligations of which might be modernized, altered and amended to the great benefit of the public. At present the legal recognizance is only for ten pounds. It has continued to for 233 years, since the reign of Edward VI, when the firm then fixed on, according to the decrease of the value of money, was much more than the fifty pounds now proposed, is at the present time.
+ The total ignorance of moral and religious duties among the lower ranks of people in the metropolis is manifelted in a very striking degree, from the valt numbers who cohabit together without marriage, from which connections a numerous progeny arises, reared up (where want of care and disease does not shorten their days) under the example of parents whose conduct exhibits nothing but the vilest profligacy.
D. H. Baro. T.out|T. in Hy::C.1 Wind.
Weacher, &c. 117 30,1742 53,551
WNWI hazy, more ciuudy N 2 30,0855 [5°,5150
NW 2 hazy 217 30,1351 57 52
Wi 12 /30, 14| 58 59,5 47
W , cloudy night 317 30,21 53.5 58
W] 12 [30,28 [56 50
W 417 30,23 54 58
W 2 30,07 57,5 60
SW 2 517 29,81 53,5158 50
S 2 cloudy: little tain 2 29,64 56,5100
S 2 muclı genile rain : fine morn 6 7 29,3653,5159
little wet 2 29,;& 57 59,350
SSW 2.little wet, fine ere: thunder forn 717 29,34 46,553 51
SI · chiefly cloudy and rain 2 29,22 51,556,5 56 4
lattie rain. fine 817 29,42 44,553 32
WSW I 2 129,44 54 58 46
W 2. much rain at night 917 29,35 50,5) 56 57
W , little rain. less cluudy, rain at times 2 129,1855,5 58,5 56,51
windy. Power. fine. leis wind 1017 29,57 45 55 50
W 3 hazy
hazy. less wind 1117 29,4944 53 51
Wihazy: cloudy. rain 2 29,29 47,5 54 51 5
W 2 licule rain. line 127 129,42|41,5150 50,5
• more wind 2 29,42 54 54 49 2 SW less wind : much rain 137 129,40 47,553,5154
Wil chiefly rain and less figgy: file 2 29,4051
whazy. thick upward. cloudiefs hazy nigh 1417 29,63 44 52 52
W hazy, foggy : thick upward 2 29,6154,555 53
little rain. heavy rain at night 1517 29,54 48 54 54 5
NNW i foggy 2 29,63150
55 54 5 NNW ihazy 1617 129,89 41,550 54
NI F2:9,91 50 53,551,512
N2 177 30,01 39,5 49
Ni 21.9,93 51,5 53 50
E 2 cloudy eve.' much gentle rain 187 129,6749 52,554
Nigentle rain. Jess cloudy: thick upward 229,67 50,5153 53 Aho Withick upward. rain! tiae night : rain 1917 29,76 45 52 52,55
W1 fine 2 29,9452 53 53 3
. more cloudy at times 2017 30,1542 52,551,513
very hazy: cloudy 2 30,21 55 55. 51,55 NNW ihazy, little wet 2117 30,2151 55 56
thick fog upward, less fog 30,20 54,5 55,5155
h NWI 2217 30,17 51,555 57
5 W o drizzling. less cloudy at times 2 30,0755 156
36 15 23 7 30,0552 55 5
little wet at times 2 30,00 55 58 156 15
clear eve 24/7 30,07 39 51 51
Wihazy 2 30,08 40,5/52,5 45
N 2 hazy. clear eve 2517 30,43 31,5/44 50
Ni hazy 2 30,49 44,5 48 43
Ni házy. thick upward, clear eve 2617 30,4937 47,552
Nihazy. cloudy: rain 2 30,4049 51 57
N 2 liitle rain. fine eve 2717 30,34 42,5 48,5 57.50 NNE 1 hazy 2 309,2949 51 51
E 2. cloudy night 28 7 130,20 48
5 NE 1 hazy. thick upward 2. 30,0851 53 55
: drizzling fog 2917 30,44/48.53 56
NE Odrizzling fog. less fog and clouds 229,98151,554 51 5
NE 1 hazy 307 29,89 148 53,558
NE I hazy. little rain N2 29,94 49,5153 54
NNE 1|hazy 3717 29,99 46,553 51
REMARKS on the State of the Air, VEGETATION, &c. O&tober 1796. WA
ALNUTS begin to flip the hull.--16. The first white frost of this
autumn.-—29. Mulberry, walnut, and horse chestnut trees have. principally cast their leaves. --This month, compared with the lat, has been very cold: a differexce of zo degrees between their greatest extremes of heat; of 16. between their least extremes ; and of 46, between the greatest heat of laft month and the leait of this. On the 25th the thermometer was 31.5 in the morning; as an uncommon degree of cold for the season, as the i7th of last month was for heat.
Rain i inch 98 hundredths. OBSERVATIONs on the Diseases in O&tober 1796. A
they were slight, and seemed to proceed more from acrid collections in the firit passages, occafioned by cold applied to the surface of the body, than from any other cause : active purgatives, in general, removed them without the use of any other remedy. Towa d the end of the month a fever began to prevail, having inilaminatory symptoms at its commencement, which on the sixth or seventh day changed their rype, and became a low or typhus fever, the Sinocéus of Cullen ; the whole of the symptoms were in general moderate, neither becoming very dangerous nor highly contagious: as there was a considerable determination of blood to the head, the application of leeches to the temples were eminently useful; blisters applied to the back afforded effential relief, and the use of bark with acids, with the occasional use of purgatives, food restored health : it was most frequently met with irr close and narrow streets, and those who had committed any kind of intemperance were its most common objects; it rarely proved fatal Obstinate gouty complaints. still continued ; fcarlet fever became much less frequent, and smallpox (making the comparison with former months) was very rare. A few cases of apoplexy occurred.
THE BRITISH MUS E.
(And ol ! ye parents ! know that love un.
check'd, [From REVOLUTIONS, a Poem, by
Is love approv'd.) Thus strengthen d P. COURTIER.]
paflion, THERE are griefs which even war And the happy pair look d for uniningled creates noi,
sweets; And which a public peace can never heal When from the Indian fhores Petruchio The filent injuries of private life.
came, Bentath domestic usurpation. bends And fought Avaro to transport his child Refiftless beauty; wholeendearing charms With him, returning to that mart of youth. Are, like the Afric, sold to foreigy climes ; Avaro paus'd not; to liis sordid eye Or chain'd to masters whose imperious will Gold far outfhone the treasures of the foul. Is abject Navery, - whose pleasures-tasks. Mary, in vain- My father, what is The artless Mary to Fidelio gave
wealth ? Her youthful heart. Tho' weaith to him Not one true beam of joy its glittering rays Held not a lavish hand, yet competence - Can ever shed around a broken heart. Defy'd the frowns of want ; and mental Fidelio loves-loves to distraction, Mary! gifts,
Ah! if his vows were hateful to thy light, Unhaken truth, and innate worth were Why countenanc'd fo long :- There was
his, Avaro knew that Mary lov*d Fidelio; When feparation had not been so keen | Yet his dissent chill'd not the mutual flames. That palty-even death cannot effect it."