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any of our winter months, merely by After these come apoplexies and palattending to this circumstance. Thus fies, fevers, consumptions, and droptheir number last January was not fies. Under the two lait of which are much above {th of what it had been contained a large proportion of the in the same month the year before. chronical diseases of this country ; all The article of asthma, as might be which seem to be hurried on to a preexpected, is prodigiously increased, mature termination. The whole will and perhaps includes no inconsiderable most readily be seen at one view in the part of the mortality of the aged. following table.

1795:

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Whole No. Aged a. l Asthma.

(Apoplexy
and Fever.

Con Dropof deaths. bove 6o.

palsy.

rumption. fy.

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Notwithstanding the plague, the how, arisen a prejudice concerning remittent fever, the dyfentery, and putrid diseases, which seems to have the scurvy, have so decreased, that made people more and more appretheir very name is almost unknown in henfive of them, as the danger has London; yet there has, I know not bee growing less. It must in great

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measure be attributed to this, that the been impaired either by age, or by consumption of Peruvian bark in this intemperance, or by disease ; he will country has, within the last fifty be very liable to have all his comyears, increased from 14,000 to above plaints increased, and all his infirmi. 100,000 pounds annually. And the ties aggravated by such a season. Nor same cause has probably contributed, must the young and active think themfrom a mistaken mode of reasoring, selves quite secure, or fancy their to prepollefs people with the idea of health will be confirmed by impruthe wholesomeness of a hard froft. But dently exposing themselves. The it has in another place * been very a- stoutest man mày meet with impedibly demonstrated that a long frost is ments to his recovery from accidents eventually productive of the worst pus otherwise inconfiderable ; or may contrid fevers that are at this time known tract inflammations, or coughs, and in London; and that heat does in fact lay the foundation of the feverest ills. prove a real preventive against that In a country where the prevailing disease. And although this may be complaints among all orders of peofaid to be a very remote effect of the ple are colds, coughs, consumptions, cold, it is not therefore the less

' real and rheumatisms, no prudent man can in its influence upon the mortality of surely suppose that unnecessary expoLondon. Accordingly a comparison fare to an inclement sky; that pridof the numbers in the foregoing table ing oneself upon going without any will thew that very nearly twice as additional clothing in the feverest win. many persons died of fevers in January ter ; that inuring oneself to be hardy, 1795, as did in the corresponding at a time that demands oor cherithing month of this year. I might go on the firmest conftitution left it fuffer; to observe that the true scurvy was last that braving the winds, and challengyear generated in the metropolis from ing the rudelt efforts of the feason, the fame causes extended to an un- can ever be generally useful to Engufuat-tength. But these are by no lifhmen. But if generally, and upon means the only ways, nor indeed do the whole, it be inexpedient, then they seem to be the principal ways, ought every one for himself to take in which a frost operates to the de- care that he be not the fufferer. For struction of great numbers of people. many doctrines very importantly erThe poor, as they are worse protect- roneous ; many remedies either vain, ed from the weather, so are they of or even noxious, are daily imposed course the greatest sufferers by its in- upon the world for want of attention ciemency. But every physician in to this great truth ; that it is from London, and every apothecary, can general effects only, and those_foundadd his testimony, that their businefs ed upon extenfive experience, that among all ranks of people never fails any maxim to which each individual to increase, and to decrease, with the may with confidence defer, can poffifrost. For if there be any whose lungs bly be establihed. are tender, any whose constitution has

Observations on the jail fevex, by Dr. Hunter, Med. Tranf. vol. III. Account of the EART HQUAK E-felt in various parts of England,

November 18, 1795; with some Obfervations thercon. By Edward Whitaker Gray, MD. FR.S.

[ Read before the Royal Society, May 12, 1796. ] H

president of the royal society to count of the earthquake which was draw up, from various letters tranf- felt in most of the midland counțies of mitted to him and to the society, and England, on Wednesday, November from such other authentič information 18, 1795, I beg leave to lay before

extent.

the society the following account there four places aliteady mentioned as its of; which, however imperfect it may extreme points, namely, Bristol, Libe, contains all the material informa- verpool, Leeds, and Norwich, to be tion I have been able to obtain upon joined by right lines, so as to form a the subject.

quadrangle. That quadrangle will The carthquake happened, as is al- comprise, as, accurately as such a fiready said, on Wednesday, Nov. 18, gure can be expected to do, the parts to about eleven o'clock at night. The which it may reasonably be presumed ftate of the weather, and other cir. to have extended. cunttances previous to it, are describ Respecting the effects of the earthed in some of the letters hereafter no- quake in many of the counties aboveticed. Before I proceed to take no- mentioned, I have not been able to tice of them, I shall endeavour to give collect any, particulars which appear a general idea of its extent.

to me worth rela:ing ; with regard to It appears that the shock was felt such counties, therefore, I think it as far to the north as Leeds, and as unnecessary to do any thing more than far to the south as Bristol. To the to record its having reached them, saft it was, felt as far as Norwich, And, for, such record, I have, in and to the west as far as Liverpool. fome initances, considered the news Its extent from north to south, there- papers of the respective.counties, or fore, was about 165 miles; and its some fuch public teftimony, as fuffici. extent from east to west about 175. ent authority ; provided the fituation In this latter direction, or rather from of the place where the earthquake was northeast to fouthwell, it may be faid

said to have been felt was such as to to have reached nearly across the come witi in the general outline of its island,

The counties in which I have any I shall now proceed to those details account of the earthquake having been respecting the earthquake which have perceived are Somersetshire, Wilto been received from various counties; thire, Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire, taking them in the order in which Northamptonshire, Huntingdonshire, those counties are mentioned above. Norfolk, Lincolnshire, Leiceiterhire, From Belton, the seat of lord Warwickshire, Gloucestershire, Here- Brownlow, in Lincolnshire, the fol fordshire, Worcestershire, Stafford- lowing account was sent by Mr. fire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, Notting. Christopher Driffield, in a letter dated hamshire, Yorkshire, and Lancalhire. November 19.

To those counties may, I think, be • We had yesterday a most violent safely added Rutlandshire, Berkshire, hurricane of wind, which began about Bedfordshire, Cambridgesh re, and eight o'clock in the morning, and Shropshire. I have not indeed met continued till about one. After the with any account of the earthquake wind fettled we had a heavy rain, from either of them ; but, whoever which ceased about four in the afterwill examine the fifuation of these noon, and it was a very fine evening; counties, with respect to those above but, about eleven o'clock, as near as enumerated, will find it difficult to I can fay, we felt a terrible shock of conceive that they were not, in fome an earthquake, which lasted about two degree, affected by it*.

seconds. It shook the chair in which Perhaps a general idea of the ex- I was fitting, beginning with a viotent of the earthquake cannot be bet- lent rumbling, or noise, as if fome ter obtained, than by fuppofing the large carriage had run against the

I know it has been faid that earthquakes have been felt at two places distant from each other, and not at an intermediate place; but I fee no sufficient reason for fuppofing what to haye been the case in the present instance.

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gate-poft. It went from north to Johnson, esq. F.R.S. in a letter
south. It was generally felt at Grant- dated November 25.
ham, and in this neighbourhood.' • The earthquake was felt at Kenil-

The following account of its effects worth about twenty minutes after elein Leicestershire, is given in a letter ven ; but our common clocks are from Mr. William King, dated Bel- usually kept with the fun, and were voir castle, November 30.

therefore, at that time, nearly a quar• The earthquake happened, as ter of an hour too faft; by true time, near as I can recollect, about five or I reckon it to have been fix minutes ten minutes after eleven in the even- past eleven. I had lain down some ing. The wind during the day had little time, when I felt the bed raised been very brisk, but toward the even- up. My first idea was 'that a large ing (fix o'clock) it became almost dog had got under it, but the imıne. totally calm, and continued so the diate shaking of the curtains, and of whole night. The fhock was strong the room, convinced me this could enough at the castle to waken those not be the case. All those who were who were alleep. Some, though but in bed, and awake at the time, defew, thought it was an earthquake ; fcribe it in the same way; every one the general opinion was that some- supposing that their beds were raised thing had fallen down in the room up by some living creature under them. over head; or had struck the floor un- It was not so universally felt by perderneath; or that an adjoining parti- fons who were up; those who were tion or door had received a blow. engaged in conversation did not, in Pendulous bodies were put in motion, general, perceive it ; but, of those as well as some doors that were not whose attention was lefs. occupied, fhut. Instances of both thefe happen- some felt their seats flipping from ed in the castle, and they, in some under them, others saw things move measure, confirm an opinion that the which were hung up, and some heard fhock was undulatory. It happened the doors and windows rattle. Many at a time when few were out of doors, say it was attended with a low rumbut fome were, and they all agree bling noise, but this I did not hear. that the shock was not attended with The motion, as well as I can judge, any extraordinary light; neither was continued nearly two seconds. The there any ball of fire, nor any singular evening was perfectly calm, after a motion, in the air.'

mast tempeftuous night and day, with • The Rev. Mr. Peters, whose re- the wind nearly southwest. The bafidence is at Knipton, a mile and a rometer, for thirty-six hours preceding, half from the castle, gives the follow. had varied very remarkably. On ing account. He was going to bed, Tuesday morning, the 17th, it stood but, at the instant, stood with his at 30.23, but funk gradually, during back against a wall; he found the the course of that day, and more rawhole room shake, particularly the pidly in the night: to the best of my bed curtains. As he had felt many recollection, it was on Wednesday earthquakes in Italy, he immediately morning at 28.63, and that night, a knew it to be one,' and was attentive little before the shock was felt, at to the consequences. He declares that 28.8. The thermometer, in a room the air was calm at the time ; had no without a fire, was about 48 or 49° noise in it ;. nor did he perceive any the whole day. I am not able to state extraordinary light. Knipton is in a the degree of moisture in the air, (my low situation, and was fhaken as much hygrometer being broken) but it was as the castle.'

loaded with humidity, making the Of its effects at Kenilworth, in passage walls and floors damp. The Warwickshire, the following descrip- effects of the earthquake were most tion is given by Robert Auguftus fenfibly felt on the tops of hills, or on

ber 24.

1

high ground; but I have not heard of work near the new shaft, supposed its having done any damage in this that the curb which supports the country.

walling had given way, and the whole From Worcester the following ac- fhaft had run in. Several chimnies count of it was sent by Dr. Johnitone were thrown down, and several famiof that city, in a letter dated Novem- lies left their habitations ; indeed such

a general alarm was never known in • The earthquake was chiefly felt this neighbourhood.' by persons in bed, about eleven The gust of wind mentioned by o'clock, or five minutes after, who Mr. Milnes being considered as a redefcribe the sensation to have been as markable circumstance, he was desired if some person under the bed had to make some farther inquiry conheaved it

up... That sensation was cerning it: in consequence of which a preceded, the instant before, by a second letter was received from him, noise which fome call rumbling, and dated December 4, as follows : which others compare to the falling of . I have examined all our miners tiles, though none fell from the houses separately, and, from the following where they lived. Many persons circumstances, I think there cannot be heard the windows and doors of their a doubt but the wind which was felç in rooms rattle at the same time, which the mines, on the 18th of last month, increased their alarm. Thunder and rushed into the shafts from the surlightning had been observed some face. days before ; and several persons, of « Thofe men' who were at work in a delicate state of health, passed the the pumps, which are a considerable night of the 18th in a rettlefs uneasy depth below the waggon gates, and manner, without knowing why, though have no communication therewith, did very much in the manner in which not feel the wind; but heard, in the they used to be affected by thunder firft place, a rushing rumbling kind of and lightning.'

noise, which appeared to be at a disIn Derbyshire the shock appears to tance, and to come nearer and nearer, have been very fevere. A descrip- until it seemed to pass over them, and tion of its effects, not only upon the die away. Those who were in the earth, but also under its furface, is . waggon gate which has a communi. contained in the two following letters cation with the engine fhaft, and the from Mr. William Milnes, of Atho- new shaft, felt a very strong current ver : the first is dated November 20. of wind; which, one man fays, con

On Wednesday night, about a tinued while he walked about fix or quarter past eleven o'clock, a severe seven yards, and came along the gate, shock of an earthquake was felt here. as if it came from the new shaft; he I felt it very sensibly; at first I heard had no light, but, as he went along a rumbling kind of noise, and imme- the gate, the sides thereof, where he diately after it appeared as if some laid his hands, felt as if they were person or persons had violently forced going to close in upon him. into the room; the bed, and every • The only one who saw any apthing else, shaking very much. The pearance of light, on that evening, in workmen in Gregory Mine were so this neighbourhood, (that I have been much alarmed by the noise, and the sud- able to make out) was a person who den gult of wind that attended it, as to lives with Mr. Enoch Stevenson, the leave their work; some expecting that miller, at Mill Town. He informs the whole mass of bunnings above me that, as he and another man were them, which contains many hundred returning from Tideswell, he saw, tons weight of rubbish, had given when he got upon a piece of high land way, and that they should be buried near Moor-hall

, on the road to Chatsin the ruins ; others, who were at worth, an uncommon light; and,

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