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karce times, is fufficient for their not render them less dear and valuafubfiftence.' - Pihis,' continues Mr. ble to their owners, which is a lucky Hearne, however odd it may appear, circumstance for those women, and a is but too true à description of the certain proof, that there is no fuch fituation of women in this country: thing as any rule or standard for beauty, it is at least so in appearance ; for the Ak a Northern Indian, what is beauwomen always carry the provisions, ty? He wiil answer, a broad flat face, and it is more than p obable they small eyes, high cheek-bones, three help themfelves when the men are not or four broad black lines across each present.' Page 55.
cheek, a low forehead, a large broad In his third excursion to the Copper chin, a clumsy hook-nose, a tawny Mine River, Mr. Hearne met [ April hide, and breasts hanging down to
18, 1771] with a tent of Northern the belt. Those beauties are greatly Indians, on the north side of Thele- heightened, or at least rendered more
• From these Indi- valuable, when the poffeffor is capable ans,' says Mr. Hearne, Matonabbee of dressing all kinds of kins, convert, parchased another wife; so that he ing them into the different parts of had no less than feven, most of whom their clothing, and able to rry eight would for fize have made good grena: or ten stone * in summer, or haul diers. He prided himfelf much in much greater weight in winter. the height and strength of his wives, These, and other similar accomplisand would frequently fay, few women ments, are all that are sought after, would carry or haul heavier loads; or expected in a Northern Indian and, though they had, in general, à man. As to their temper, it is of very masculine appearance, yet he little consequence, for the men have a preferred them to those of a more de- wonderful facility in making the mod sicate form and moderate stature. In stubborn comply with as much alacrity a country like this, where a partner as could pohly be expected from those in excessive hard labour is the chief of the mildest and most obliging turn of motive for the union, and the softer mind; fo that the only difference is, the endearments of a conjugal life are only one obeys through fear, and the other considered as a secondary object, there complies cheerfully from a willing seems to be great propriety in such a mind; both knowing that what is choice;. but if all the men were of commanded must be done.
They this way of thinking, what would be- are, in fact, all kept at a great dif come of the greater part of the wo- tance; and the rank they hold in the men, who, in general, are but of low opinion of the men cannot be better ftature, and many of them of a most expreff:d or explained, than by ob delicate make, though not of the ex- ferving the method of treating or serw acteft proportion, or most beautiful ing them at meals, which would ap mould i Take them in a body, the pear very humiliating to an European women are as destitute of real beauty woman, though cultom makes it fit. as any nation I ever faw, though there light on those whose lot it is to bear it. are some few of them, 'when young, It is necessary to observe, that when who are colerable; but the care of a the men kill any large beast, the family, added to their constant hard women are always fent to bring it to labour, foon makes the most beautiful the tent. When it is brought there; among them look old and wrinkled, every operation, such as fplitting, even before they are thirty; and fe- drying, pounding, &c. is performed veral of the more ordinary ones, at by the women. When any thing is that age, are perfest antidotes to love to be prepared for eating, it is the and gallanery. This, however, does women that cook it ; and when it is
The ftohe here meant is fourteen pounds.
done, the wives and daughters of the whole of their wants seems to be cons-
ern Indian man ; and when any of A plurality of wives, Mr. Hearne them have been permitted to remain thinks not to be surprising among these at the fort, they have, for the sake people, as it is so well adapted to of gain, been easily prevailed upon to their situation and manner of life, deviate from that character; and a
In my opinion,” says he, 'no race few have, by degrees, become as of people under the fun have a greater abandoned as the Southern Indians, occafion for such an indulgence. Their who are remarkable, throughout ail annual haunts, in quest of furs, are their tribes, for being the most deIo remote from any European settle- bauched wretches under the sun.' ment, as to render them the greatest In general, however, the Northern travellers in the known world ; and Indian women are so far being like as they have neither horse nor water the latter, that it is very uncommon carriage, every good hunter is under to hear of their ever being guilty of the necessity of having several persons incontinency. Page 128. to assist in carrying his furs to the It may appear itrange, continues company's fort, as well as carrying Mr. Hearne, that while I am exback the European goods which he tolling the chastity of the Northern receives in exchange for them. No Indian women, I should ackno: ledge persons in this country are so proper that it is a very common cution For this work as the women, because among the men of this country to they are inured to carry and haul exchange a night's lodging with cach heavy loads from their childhood, and other's wives. But this is so far from to do all manner of drudgery; so that bring conlidered as an act that is crithose men who are capable of pro- minal, that it is esteemed by them viding for three, four, five, fix, or one of the strongest ties of friendship more women, generally find them between two families; and, in case of humble and faithful servants, affec- the death of either man, the other, tionate wives; and fond and indulgent confiders himfelf bound to support the mothers to their children. Though children of the deceased. Those peox custom makes this way of life fit ap- ple are so far from yiewing this en.. parently easy on the generality of the gagement as a mere ceremony, like women, and though, in general, the most of our Chritian godfathers and
godmothers, who (notwithstanding Mr. Hearne adds in a note : Most their vows are made in the most folemn of the Southern Indians, as well as manner, and in the presence of both, the Athapuscow and Neheaway tribes, God and man) scarcely ever after- are entirely without fcruple in this ward remember what they have pro- rcfpect. It is notoriously known, mised, that there is not an instance of that many of them cohabit occasior.a Northern Indian having once neg: ally with their own mothers, and frcą le ted the duty he is supposed to have quently espouse their sisters and daughtaken
upon himself to perform. The ters. I have known several of them Southern Indians, with all their bad who, after having lived in that state, qualities, are remarkably humane and for some time, with their daughters, charitable to the widows and children have given them to their sons, and all of their departed friends, and as their parties been perfectly reconciled to fituation and manner of life enable it. them to do more acts of charity with • In fact, notwithstandirg the sea lefs trouble than falls to the lot of a verity of the climate, the licenticul, Northern Indian, few widows or chil-, ness of the inhabitants cannot be ex, dren are ever unprovided for among ceeded by any of the Eastern nations, them.'
whose luxurious manner of life, and Though the Northern Indian men genial clime, seems more adapted to make no fcruple of having two or excite extraordinary paslons, than the three fifters for wives, at one time, severe cold of the frigid Zone. yet they are very particular in ob * It is true, that few of those wha serving a proper distance in confan- live under the immediate protection of guinity of those they admit to the the English, ever take their listers or above-mentioned intercourse with their daughters for wives, which is proba, wives. The Southern Indians are bly owing to the fear of incurring lefs fcrupulous on those occasions : their displeasure; but it is well known among them it is not at all uncom- that acts of incest too often take place mon for one brother to make free with among them, though, perhaps, noc another brother's wife or daughter; so frequently as among the foreign In but this is held in abhorrence by the dians." Page 130. Northern Indians.'
* In philosophy and religion, the bigots of all parties are generally the most pofitive.
WATTS. To the Editor of the Universal Magazine, Sir, AS
S the following sentiments on bi- of opinions, which he stands up for
gotry, have no relation to one with more conceit and Zeal than the party or set of opinions more than to reason and importance of them re-, another, I hope they will not be un quire. It is used by French writers acceptable in a miscellany which pro to fignify hypocrisy and superstition, fesses impartiality; and I trust they a falie Thow of zeal, and fondnels for will be found not ill calculated to Thow, little things. "It commonly respects what it is very necessary to be aco matters of religion, especially the outquainted with, that there is a much ward circumstances and minuter apo greater share of" bigotry in men's, pendages of it ; and may indifferently minds than they are aware of.
relate to what is right or wrong : for Bigotry is an exceffive fondness for an unreasonable and disproportionate a man's own sentiments, 'or for any rer zeal in a right way, partakes of the
nature of this vice, as well as any of principles we happen to imbibe, • lower degrees in a wrong. It is fome- often determine our belief, and fix times extended to other things beside our party for the rest of our lives., religion. There is a bigotry ir poli- Sometimes, it may be traced to the tics, in philosophy, and in common conversation of others, especially of life ; the former confifts of an adhe. one sort of men. The wit and ad. fence to peculiar opinions ; the latter dress of those whom we esteem and is an affectation of singularity, admire, easily infinuate and persuade,
Bigotry seems always to involve in and delight us like a charm. Men it partiality and violence; partiality naturally run into the sentiments of to one's own way, with rigour and see those with whom they frequently conyerity toward that of other men. It verse, without any opportunity of engenders a conceited temper, or a hearing the other side, or ever seeing perfecuting spirit. It hands opposed the thing in another light. This will to that generous freedom and enlarge- be best understood and illustrated by ment of soul, which takes in the whole certain inftances in matters of opinion compafs of a case, and lies open to and practice. the evidence of truti', and to Chris In matters of mere opinion, we of-, tian charity, notwithstanding that other ten fee men fo tenacious of their own men may posters another turn of mind, apprehensions, as to be impatient.of and other apprehensions of things. contradiction, or of hearing any thing It is diftinguished from true zeal or that differs from their opinion. You earnest contending for truth, which kindle their passion by the gen left is always according to knowledge, is breath of opposition, and put them measured by the weight of things, and into a posture of dehance at the firft apkeeps within due bounds ; while bi- pearance of an attack. If you once gotry is a disproportionate concern to attempt to shock their principles, or the weight of the matter, and to the pretend to convince them of a miltake, prejudice of some other truth.' Zeal they will break in upon all the rules of is a 'ftaid and regular warmth, like decency, and all the ties of friendship. the natural heat of the body ; bigo- They take it for an unpardonable try is preternatural and intemperate, rudeness and presumption, to offer to like a faint and feverith heat. show them that they are in the wrong
Bigotry is often constitutional, and or, to endeavour to set them right. arises from an unhappy temper or Or they give a higher asient to the
truth of a thing than they have proper teness of scul, confined and limited evidence to support, and often reekon m its views ; or from a natural fury a thing certain upon doubtful proof, and fiery zeal, transporting men' with or upon arguments which, impartially passion, and carrying them beyond weighed, appearat molt but probable. reasonable bounds in whatever they Sometimes they lay a grearer stress espouse; or from pride and conceit of upon a certain truth than it deserves, ourselves, over-rating our understand- either considered in itself, or compared ings, and making them the measure with other truths. A bigot will comof truth, and standard to other men; mend and caress a man who agrees or from selfilnefs of mind, an over with him in a favourite tenet, though care for our own interests, and unc, he has scarce one valuable quality that concern and disregard for the welfare belongs to him, and overlook or de of others. .
· preciate the most fining excellence. Sometimes bigotry proceeds from in those who happen to differ from prejudices of education, or the tincture him in a darling tentiment. What we receive from the earliest imprel- Hume in his history Says of fadin frons. A school, or university, the may be applied
d herse. It is no respect of our teachers, or the firkt set der, says that writera chat faction
is fo productive of vices of all kinds; than themselves, and consequently to for, betide chai it infames all the be more fit to judge, not considering pallions, it tends much to remove those that it is his own account and not great restraints, honour and Thame, another's which a rational creature is when uten find, that no iniquity can to give. The fame of great and adlose them the applause of their own mired names has drawn in multitudes party, and no innocence secure them to the same opinion, and discouraged against the calumnies of the oppo- free enquiries even in the cale of the fite.'
most plain and important instances of There is often, in bigotry, an ina truth. Such men swallow opinions as confiftency of sentiments. Truth some filly people do the medicines of quacks, umes breaks forth in generous princi- without knowing the ingredients, or ples, but when a favourite notion how they will operate, or as soldiers comes to be touched by, it, they are follow their commander, without ex ready to abandon the principle, or amining the cause for which they confritter it away into nothing. We see tend. men often laying down such principles Men often read only one side of a in contending with one party, as they controversy; magnify the wisdom and arë ready to be alhamed of when they learning of their own writers, white they are attacked by anotzer, crying they dišparage those of the other side, up a set of principles at one time, and without making themselves acquainte in one circumftance of things, whiched with them. Of this instances are they are ready to diffemble and disown rather too obvious to require us to in another. Those grow shy and fpecify them. filent, who were before open and cla Bigotry is a weed which must be morous, and are either afraid to own rooted up, or it will quickly ruin all à truth, or alhamed to confess a mis- the good productions of the foil where take.
it grows. It will eat out the heart of This will farther appear, if we con- religion, and the heart of the country sider the matter in what relates to too, if it be not timely checked and practice. Men obftinately adhere to deftroyed. It is vicious in its whole their own way, without suficient are nature, and in all its causes and con. gument, and against reasonable evi- fequences. It is unmanly, for men dence: They are settled and fixed in shut their eyes against the light, and their present opinion, and become follow others who are in the dark, proof against the crearest light, and They neglect the noblest gift of God often irritated againf the fairest me and the best power of their nature, thods of convincing them. We fee what is most essential to a rational how commonly men retain the princi. creature, to think for himself, and see ples of their forefathers, and tread the" with his own eyes, and judge accordbeaten road;“ notwithstanding strong ing to the best information he can get. présomptions of being in the wrong It is ungenteel; for a bigot is always And we rarely find a man fo free and positive, and apt to be out of temper, generous,' as always to lie open to rude and troublesome. Upon the conviction, and dare to embrace a principle of an obstinate adherence to new truth, or rectify and discard an a man's own sentiments right or wrong, old mistake.
it is impollible to keep up mutual civi. A servile adherence to other men's lity and decorum. One man has the judgments, without ufing our own fame right to infift as another, and iealon, or thinking for ourselves, is upon this fuppofition, neither must a very common, but very pernicious yield or give way. inftance of bigotry. Many give them Nor is it less unchriftian; for:no felves up blindfold to the conduct of thing is more opposite to the spirit of others, and follow them right of Christianity, which is all kindness and wrong, supposing them to see farther goodness, inspiring the mot generous