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been attracted by the vicinity, the in summer. Yet we have esoaped the manners, and the language of Lau- dumned great ones, the count d'Artois, sanne ; and our narrow habitations in the Pol gnacs, ' &c. who slip by us to town and country are now occupied Turin. What a scene is France ! by the first names and titles of the de- While the assembly is voting abftract parted monarchy. These noble fugi. propofitions, Paris is an independent tive: are entitled to our pity; they republic; the provinces have neither may claim our esteem, but they can authority nor freedom, and poor Rot, in their prelent ttate of mind and Necker declares that credit is no more, fortune, much contribute to our a. and that the people refuse to pay taxes. musement. Instead of looking down Yet I think you must be seduced by the as calm and idle spectators on the abolition of tythes. If Eden goos to theatre of Europe, our domestic har- Paris you may have fome curious inmony is somewhat embittered by the "formation. infusion of party fpirit: our ladies and Lausanne, December 15, 1789. gentlemen assume the character of self - What would you have me fay of thọ taught politicians; and the fober dic- affairs of France ! We are too near, tates of wisdom and experience are and too remote, to form an accurate filenced by the clamour of the tri- judgment of that wonderful scene. umphant democrates. The fanatic The abuses of the court and governmisionaries of sedition have scattered ment called aloud for reformation ; the seeds of discontent in our cities and it has happened, as it will always and villages, which had flourished happen, that an innocent well-disposed above two hundred and fifty years prince has paid the forfeit of the fins without fearing the approach of war, of his predecessors; of the ambition of or feeling the weight of government. Lewis the fourteenth, of the profusion Ma:.y individuals, and some commụ- of Lewis the fifteenth. The French nities, appear to be infested with nation had a glorious opportunity, but the Gallic phrenzy, the wild theories they have abused, and may lose their of equal and boundless freedon; but advantages. If they had been conI truft that the body of the people will tent with 'a liberal translation of our be faithful to their sovereign and to syften, if they had respected the prethemselves; and I am fatisfied that rogatives of the crown, and the prithe iailure or success of a revolt would vileges of the nobles, they might have equally terminate in the ruin of the ralled a solid fabric on the only true country. While the aristocracy of foundation, the natural aristocracy of Bern protects the happiness, it is fu- a great country. How different is the perfluous to enquire whether it be prospect ! Their king brought a capfounded in the rights of man: the tive to Paris, after his palace had been economy of the state is liberally sup- ftained with the blood of his guards; plied without the aid of taxes; and the pobles in exile; the çlergy plunthe magiftrates must reign with pru. dered in a way which strikes at the dence and equity, fince they are un- root of all property ; the capital an armed in the midit of an armed nation. in dependent republic ; the union of

In a letter from Lausanne, August the provinces diffolved; the flames of 1789, he says : 'Are you not amazed discord kindled by the worst of men ; at the French revolution. They have in that light I confider Mirabeau) the power, will they have the modera- and the honestest of the aliembly, a tion to establih a good constitution set of wild visionaries, (iike our Dr.

Lausanne, September 9, 1789. Far Price) who gravely dębate, and dream from delighting in the whirl of a mę- about the efablishment of a pure and tropclis, my only complaint against perfect democracy of five-and-twenty Lausanne is the great number of millions, the virtues of the golden age, ftrangers, always of English, and now and the primitive rights and equality of French, by whom we are infested of mankind, which would lead, in

fair reasoning, to an equal partition of How different from the careless cheerlands and money. How many years fulness with which our poor friend lord must elapse before France can recover North fup, orted his fall! Madame any vigour, or resume her station de Necker mai tains more external commong the powers of Europe ! As yet, posure, “mais le Diable n'y perd there is no symptom of a great man, rien.” It is true that Necker wilhed a Richlieu .or à Cromwell, arising, to be carried imo the closet, like old either to restore the monarchy, or to Pitt, on the shoulders of the people ; lead the commonwealth. The weight and that he has been ruined by the deof Paris, more deeply engaged in the mocracy which he had raised. I befunds than a l the rest of the kingdom, lieve him to be an able financier, and will long delay a bankruptcy; and if know him to be an honest man ; too it should happen, it will be, both in honeft, perhaps, for a minister. His the cause and the effect, a measure of rival Calonne has passed through Lauweakness, rather than of itrength. fanne, in his way from Turin; and You send me to Chamberry, to fee a was soon followed by the piince of prince and an archbishop. Alas ! we Condé, with his son and grandson ; have exiles enough here, with the but I was too much indisposed to see marshal de Castres and the duke de them. They have, or have had, Guignes at their head ; and this in- fome wild projects of a counter-revoundation of. Itrangers, which uled to lution : horses have been bought, men be confined to the summer, will now levied : such fuolish attempts must end stagnate all the winter. The only in the ruin of the party. Burke's ones w.om I have seen with pleasure book is a most admirable medicine ar are Mr. Mounier, the late president gai.lt the French disease, which has of the national assembly, and the count made too much progress even in this de Lally; they have both dined with happy country. I admire his elome. Mounier, who is a serious dry quence, I approve his politics, I adore politician, is returned to Dauphine. his chivalry, and I can forgive even Lally is an amiable man of the world, his superstition. The primitive church, and a poet: he passes the winter here. which I have treated with some freeYou know how much I prefer a quiet dom, was itself at that time an innofelect society to a crowd of names and vation, and I was attached to the old titles, and that I always seek conver- Pagan establishment. The French fation with a view to amusement, ra- spread so many lies about the senti. ther than information. What happy ments of the English nation, that I countries are England and Swisserland, with the most considerable men of all if they know and preserve their hap- parties and descriptions would join in piness.

some public act, declaring themselves Lausanne, 1790

• I passed four satisfied and resolved to support our days at the castle of Copet with Neck- present constitution. Such a declaraer; and could have wished to have tion would have a wonderful effect in shewn him, as a warning to any af- Europe; and, were I thought worthy, piring youth possessed with the dæmon | myself would be proud to subscribe of ambition. With all the means of it. I have a great mind to fend someprivate happiness in his power, he is thing of a sketch, such as all thinking the most miserable of human beings : men might adopt. the past, the present, and the future Lausanne, April 9, 1791. Poor are equally odious to him. When I France! the state is difiolved! the fuggested some domestic amusements nation is mad! of books, building, &c. he answered, Lausanne, July 1, 1791. The news with a deep tone of despair, “Dans of the king of France's escape must l'état ou je fuis, je ne puis sentir que have reached you, before the 28th, "le coup de vent qui m'a abbatů," the day of your departure, and the

prospect of strange unknown disorder the greatest men, wandered from the may well have suspended your firmest truth, in predicting, or rather conresolves. The royal animal is again je&turing, the posible consequences of caught, and all may probably be this revolution, so wonderful as it has quiet.

fince proved, and so pregnant with The above, and many other pas- further consequences, which, after fages, from his letters, evince how what has happened, no human forewidely Mr. Gibbon, in common with fight can divine.

Several Curious Particulars of the Customs and MANNERS of the

NORTHERN INDIANS, on the Burders of Hudson's Bay: Extracted from Mr. Hearne's Journey from Prince of Wales' Fort, on Hudson's Bay, to the Northern Ocean.

THE CONTENTS. Strange Tenure of Property, and particularly of Wives.-Mode of Wreft

ling. Great Infuence of supposed Conjurers.-Character of the Northern Indians. Their Deteftation of Murder.-An Exception in Matonabbee, a Northern Indian Leader.-His.atrocious Attempt to assassinate the Hulband he had injured. His curious Sentiments of Women.-Character and Qualifications of his Wives. The Northern Indian's Ideas of Beauty.-Degrading Treatment of their Wives.- Plurality of Wives.- Virtuous Character of the Northern Indian Women.-Shocking Depravity of the

Southern Indians. It

Northern Indians, for the men to condescend to make an unequal exwrestle for any woman to whom they change; as, in general, abuse and are attached; and, of course, the insult are the only return for the loss strongest party always carries off the which is sustained. prize. A weak man, unless he be a The way in which they tear the good hunter, and well beloved, is women and other property from one seldom permitted to keep a wife that another, though it has the appearance a stronger man thinks worth his no- ' of the greatest brutality, can scarcely tice : for, at any time when the wives be called fighting. I never knew any of those strong wrestlers are heavy- of them receive the least hurt in these laden, either with furs, or provisions, rencontres. The whole business conthey make no fcruple of tearing any fists in hauling each other about by other man's wife from his bosom, and the hair of the head : they are seldom making her bear a part of his lug- known either to strike or kick each gage. This custom prevails through- other. It is not uncommon for one out all their tribes, and causes a great of them to cut off his hair, and to {pirit of emulation among their youth, grease his ears, before the contest bewho, from their childhood, are, upon gins. This, however, is done pri. all occasions, trying their strength and vately; and it is sometimes truly kill in wrestling. This enables them laughable, to fee one of the parties to protect their

property, and parti- ftrutting about with an air of great cularly their wives, from the hands importance, and calling out, Where of those powerful ravishers ; some of is he? Why does he not come out ?' whom make almost a livelihood, by when the other will bolt out with a taking what they please from the clean-fhorn head, and greased ears, weaker parties, without making them rush on his antagonist, seize him by any return. Indeed, it is represented the hair, and, though perhaps a much

weaker man, foon drag him to the for, in the struggle, I have seen the ground, while the stronger is not able . poor girls stripped quite naked, and to lay hold on him. It is very fre- carried by main force to their new quent, on those occasions, for each lodgings. At other times it was pleaparty to have spies, to watch the fant enough to fee a fine girl led off other's motions, which puts them the field from a husband the disliked, more on a footing of equality. For with a tear in one eye, and a finger want of hair to pull, they seize each on the other : for custom, or delicacy other about the waist, with legs wide- if you please, has taught them to extended, and try their strength, by think it necessary to whimper a little, endeavouring to vie who can first let the change be ever so much to their throw the other down.

inclination. I have, throughout this On these wrestling occasions, the account, given the women the appelftanders-by never attempt to interfere lation of girls, which is pretty appli. in the conteft. Even one brother of- cable, as the object of the contest are fers not to aslift another, unless it be generally young, and without any fawith advice, which, as it is always mily: few of the men choose to be at delivered openly on the field, during the trouble of maintaining other peothe conteft, may, in fact, be said to ple's children, except on some very be equally favourable to both partics. particular occafions. It sometimes happens that one of the Some of their old men, who are wrestlers is superior in strength to the famous on account of their supposed other; and, if a woman be the cause skill in conjuration, have great influ. of the conteft, the weaker is frequently ence in persuading the rabble from anwilling to yield, notwithstanding he committing those outrages; but the is greatly overpowered. When this humanity of these fages is seldom happens to be the case, the relations known to extend beyond their own and friends, or other byestanders, will families. In defence of them they sometimes join' to persuade the weaker will exert their utmost influence; but, combatant to give up the contest, left, when their own relations are guilty of by continuing it, he thould get bruised the same crime, they feldom interand hurt, without the least probability fere. This partial conduct creates of being able to protect what he is some secret, and several open enecontending for. I observed that very mies ; but the generality of their few of those people were dissatisfied neighbours are deterred, through fear with the wives that had fallen to their or fuperftition from executing their relot; for, whenever any considerable venge, and even from talking disrenumber of them were in company, spectfully of them, unless it be behind scarcely a day passed without some their backs; which is a vice of which overtures being made for contests, of almost every Indian in this country, this kind ; and it was often very un- without exception, is guilty. pleasant to me, to fee the object of Notwithstanding the Northern Inthe conteft fitting in pensive filence, dians are so covetous, and pay fo litwatching her fate, while her husband tle regard to private property, as to and his rival were contending for the take every advantage of bodily ftrength prize. I have, indeed, not only felt to rob their neighbours, not only of pity for those poor wretched victims, their goods, but of their wives, yet but the utmost indignation, when I they are, in other respects, the mildest have seen them won, perhaps, by a tribe, or nation, that is to be found man whom they mortally hated. On on the borders of Hudson's Bay: for, these occafions, their grief and re- let their affronts or losses be ever-fo luctance to follow their new lord have great, they will never seek any other been so great, that the business has revenge than that of wrestling. As often ended in the greatest brutality; for murder ; which is so common a

mong all the tribes of Southern In- , horrid deed, he sat down as comdians, it is feldom heard of among posedly as if nothing had happened, them. A murderer is shunned and called for water to wash his bloody detested by all the tribe, and is oblig- hands and knife, smoked his pipe as ed to wander up and down, forlorn usual, seemed to be perfe&tly at ease, and forsaken even by his own rela- and asked if I did not think he had tions and former friends. In that re- done right.' Page 04.

Yet this fpect, a murderer may be compared man,' continues Mr. Hearne, .is, to Cain, after he had kill d his bro- in every other refpect, of such unither Abel. The cool reception he versal good sense, and, as an Indian, meets with by a'l who know him, oc- of such great humanity, that I am at casions him to grow melancholy, and loss how to account for his having he never leaves any place but the been guilty of such a crime, unless it whole company say, ? There goes the be from his having lived among the murderer!-- The women, it is true, Southern Indians fo long, as to besometimes, receive an unlucky blow come tainted with their blood-thirty from their husbands for misbehaviour, and vindi&tive disposition.' Page 109. which occasions their death ; but this This latter circumstance is adduced, is thought nothing of: ad for one not by way of extenuating the guilt man or woman to kill another out of of Matonabbee, but to account for revenge, or through jealousy, or on this almost single exception, in the any other account, is thought so ex- character for great humanity, which trao: dinary, that very few are now Mr. Hearne has ascribed to the existing who have been guilty of it. Northern Indians. There is another At the p:esent moment, I know not trait, however, in the character of one, beside Matonabbee, who ever Matonabbee, which an European fair made an attempt of such a nature. one will be little disposed to admire. Page 104 to 109.

• He attributed, says Mr. Hearne, Matonabbee was a famous leader all vur misfortunes, in our former among the Northern Indians, whom excursions, to the misconduct of my Mr. Hearne met with in his return to guides ; and the very plan we purPrince of Wales' Fort, and whom he lued, by desire of the governor, in afterward engaged to act as his guide, not taking any women with us, was, in his third excursion to the Copper he said, the principal thirg that ocMine River. This man had forcibly casioned all our wants : * for,' said he, robbed another Indian of his wife; when all the men are heavy-laden, who, fome time after, took an op- they can neither hunt nor travel to portunity of eloping from her ravisher, any considerable distance; and, in and rejoining her husband. This poor case they meet with Yuccess in hunt. man, in the fequel, rejoined Mr. ing, who is to carry the produce of Hearne's party, at, a place called their labour ? Womens' he added, Clowey ; and Matonabbee having were made for labour: one of them heard that he had spoken disrespecte can carry, or haul, as much as two fully of him for having taken his wife men can do. They also pitch our away by force, determined to murder tents, make or mend our clothing, him. He actually stabbed him in the keep us warm at night; and, in fact, back in three places, and would have there is no such thing as travelling effetually completed his bloc dy pur- any considerable distance, or for any pose, but for timely interference. length of time, in this country, with The three wounds, however, being out their afli stance. Women,' said fortunately on the shoulder-blade, he again, though they do every proved not to be mortal. · When thing, are maintained at a trilling ex, Matonabbee returned to his tent,' says pence; for, as they always stand cook, Mr. Hearne, . after committing this the very licking of their fingers, in

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