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Among them we may have neighbours, my poorest tenant perhaps in preferfor's (f tenants, our own sons, or dif, ence to him. ferent relations : to whom, if we think I would never grant a lease to a à moment, we should be ashamed to great corn-tenant. I would preserve deny a fhare in the produce of the la- a power over his granary, which lebour of their native country, in which gillature will not or cannot assume. it is possible they themselves might Should he attempt by exportation to tare borne a share.

exliauft it, in years of scarcity, and not leave a sufficient supply for the

country which produced the grain ; The Utility of Great Farms.

thould he attempt a monopoly; should SUPPOSING all farms are reduced he refuse to carry a proper quantity to to an equality, and all made small the next market'; or should he refuse ones, the ground must be divided into to fell to the poor, who cannot attend little portions for the support of a the market, corn in small quantities, miserable team, or of a few cows, or I would inltantly affure the power of for. raising finall quantities of corn, the landlord, and expel him from my No magazines could be formed against estate : a just punishment for the teevil days; the produce of the dairy nant, who, through rapacity declines would be small, and the provision for to comply with my desires, excited fodder serve for little more than to with no other view than to promote lupport the live stock. A few hob- the good of the public. bets * of corn would be sent to market The neceflity of great farms is ade to pay the rent; the rest might serve mitted : but let it be remembered, to maintain the family till the return that their support rests upon the laof the harvest: and if the stock should bourers, who are equally requisite to be consumed before that season, how the great farmer as beams are to a would they wish for the restoring of building. Let not the rapacity of the the

great farms! Many of the little miscalled great man direct all his force farmers are also day-labourers : to to the support of the opulent farmer, whom could they apply for work, the for the sake of increaled rent. He very support of them and their fami- will (as sad examples prove) depolies? Never has there been a famine pulate his country by removing the in England fince the introduction of sturdy labourers to the ground of great fàrms. Unavoidable scarcities wiser landlords, and leave his own will happen, from causes inevitable. weakened by their defertion ; while, But there has not been an inilance, for the fields of the former laugh and fing, riumbers of centuries, of the poor but round his own, ingen; erit folitudo. running into corners to die for want I could with (ivas it in my power) of food; of their feeing their infants to add even to the cottages of my

laperih before their eyes; and perhaps bourers two or thrce fields, that they a plague might ensue, the confequence might have the comfort of a cow, to of famine, to thin the land of multi- supply their families with milk. They tudes of the miserable Turvivors.

are too uleful a class of men to be I speak disinterestediy, for I have neglected : to be left to the precarious not on my estate a single great farmer. poihbility of getting any of that inviI find no merit in this assertion; had gorating fluid, lo necessary for their ir been otherwise, I hould have fup- infants, and even for the support of ported him in all that was right, in their own strength, to fallain them common with

my poorelt tenant, and through their labour. Give them a * A hobhet consists of eighty-four quarts. A measure is ralf a hobbet. A peck is half a measure. These measures are used in all the Flintshire markets; they extend allo to other Welth counties, and even Herefordshire,


dry flated cottage, with an upper floor, Our rents are moderate, because our 'and a kind landlord, and a British la- gentry would bluch to add one dish bourer need not envy Cæsar.

to their table at the expence of the Before I take leave of the subject, tenant. Mr. Wedge, in his furvey of fet

me define the size of a great and a Cheshire, speaks humanely and fenfifmall farm in this parish. Our greatest bly on the affected maxim of high farm is rented at i1ol. per annum, at rents being a spur to industry.' This the rate of about 145. per acre. Our (for I must help Mr. Wedge with a small farms have from twenty to ten simile) resembles the practice of the acres; and the rent per acre from 125. prudent planter, who wishes to quicken to 75. There may be in every parish the industry of his negroes by the ininstances of the exorbitant raise of vigorating application of the cartTent: an evil most frequently origi- whip to their velvet kin. nating in the luxury of the landlord. MINUTES of AGRICULTURE, from the RePOR T'S of the Agricultural

Board : Continued from Vol. XCVIII, Page 399.

Ten years ago it was in the By Messrs. LLOYD and Turnet,

occupation of two, in pretty equak

divisions, giving but a scanty mainteInclosures.-The greater part of the nance to only two families of twelve tow lands is pretty well inclosed, but persons. Ever since that time, it has hilly and exposed fituations are moitly given employment and maintenance open. The fize of the fields depends to feven families, living on the spots much on the extent of the farms. In confifting (including children) of 33 generál they are from fix to ten acres. persons ; beside four or five labourThe only tract like a common field, is ers in the neighbourhood, who have an extent of a very productive barley constant employment. The fame may land, reaching on the coast from Abe. be said of every other improving spot; sairon to Llanrhyfted. This quarter as nothing has been attended to here is huch intermixed, and chiefly in more than the necessary business of a small holdings.

common farmer. Within the memory Inclosing, without a consequent im- of a labourer, who is now but fixtyprovement, is of little advantage. three years of age, there were only When both


hand in hand, the be- two carts in the parish; fledges were nefit is considerable. Population, as then the only carriage. They did well as product, are much increased little more than to convey fome fmal!

An engrossment of farms in quantity of dung to the adjoining spots. an improved situation, totally depend- Lime was "unknown; and fea land, ent in fock, or the dairy, may in the only distant manure, was carried some measure discourage population ; in bags on horses. There are now in but in an improving district, or where the same parish fifty-three carts. much cultivation is required, the re

SUSSEX. fult must be quite the contrary: ať least, it has been invariably fo in this

Rev. ARTHUR YOUNG. country. ''An instance may be more Management of Woodland. - Susex to the point than reasoning ; and as has long been celebrated for the growth the particulars of my own farm are of its timber, principally oak. No more within my own knowledge than other county can equal it in this reother holdings, that are perhaps a spect, either in quantity or quality greater obje&t of a statement, I shall It overspreads the Weald in every diat prefent refer to it. The spot I tection, where it flourishes with a great allude to, conlks of three hundred degree of luxuriance. The foil, which

by it.

is belt adapted for raising this plant, timber went out of Rye harbour tó is a ftiff strong logm, upon a red brick the number of thirty-seven one tide, earth or clay bottom. Large quanti- and never an English mariner among ties of beech are raised upon the chalk them. The whole country round this hills, which tree also Aourishes, in place, for miles, was a forest ; for great perfection. The great demand not many years after this, anno 1591, for oak bark, has, of late years, been a man was ordered to depart the town the cause of the large falls of oak, of Rye, for executing the professiun which ha, in consequence of the high of an husbandman, that place not beprice of bark, risen so amazingly, that ing fit for fuch an artificer. A fure the fee fimple of extensive and well proof of their being still in the woods. pooded tracks, has been paid by the The large sums of money that have fall of timber and underwood in two lately ben gained by timber, has geo or three years. Upon some estates in nerated an assertion, which is strongly the western part of the county, the believed, that no land pays the provalue of oak has increased 100 per prictor equally with woodland, and cent. in twelve years. When, to this that grubbing and converting it to amazing increase in the value of wood, tillage is so much money lot. No is added the more easy communica- tytres, rates low, and outgoings trition to sea-ports than formerly from fing, are great advantages, which it the improvements, which have taken pofleffes over other lands; but when place in the roads, it is not surprising we take into 'account the fact, that that the late falls have been so large, the woods are so thickly scattered over and that greater supplies have been a country, naturally one of the most brought to the dockyards, than the inclined to wet; and that it excludes country will be able in future perma- from these lands the beneficial effects nently to supply. The quantity now of winds and fun, thereby rendering Harding, of a fize fit for the royal the surface fill wetter; that all the in Davy, compared to what it has been closures are unusually small, for the within half a century, is inconfidera- benefit of the timber; and that round ble; and as there is no regular suc- every distinct field is a wood several cefsion in reserve, it must follow that rods wide, and crowded with trees; the fupply will annually grow

less. the consequent loss from having cultiIn order to form some idea what vation enveloped in a wood, must be the increase in the quantity felled is highly injurious to corn particularly : now, and the proportion it bears to and the landlord must feel this in the what it did twenty years back, the low rents of this arable and pasture; account is inserted of the export coast- and the effect on the tenant is fufficiwise, from one post in this county, of ently conspicuous in his general me the total quantity of timber and bark thod of living; and, until the woods in two periods of five years each ; fall be grubbed up, farms enlarged, the first from 1767, the other and the petty inclosures laid open, no from 1788 to 1792. in other parts Aourishing Tyítem of husbandry will of the county the same proportion ever take place in the wet soils of prevails.

Suflex. Load of Timber Ton Bark. It is usual to cut the underwood from 1763 to 1767 4769 454 thirteen to seventeen years growth ; it 1788 to 1792 19,884 2,646 is applied to a great variety of por

A load of timber is 5o cubical feet. potes; it makes poles for hops, tag

At a very early period of our hil- gots for the lime-kilns, and cordwood tory, we find the export of this most for coal. Of all sorts of underwood, valuable commodity to be very con- ash pays best, since a small piece is of fiderable. In the reign of our sixth use, and fitter for a greater variety Edward, the hoys that were laden with of workmanfhip than any other woch

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whatsoever. Excepting chestnut, it great extent in this district; the 'toy makes the best and most durable hop- and hardware trade, &c. of Birmingpoles : it is also quartered and made ham and its vicinity, and the ribbon into hoops for the coopers use, and the and tamny trade, &c. of Coventry, younger growth is cleaved ard made and its ncighbourhood, are well known. into imart hoops. Young oaks, that The good and bad effects which comgrow scrubby, at the age of thirty or merce and manufactures are likely :0 thirty-five years, are made into posts, have on the agriculture of this cir rails, and used for repairs in general; trict, depend on many circumsances ; the straight trees being left for cim- but their effects have hitherto, in my ber.

opinion, been good, by furnishing maThe time of felling oak is always nure, such as foot, horn-duit, maltruled by the barking; when that duit, rags, soap-alhes, coal-athes, the flows, which is in April

, (although refuse of dyers, &c. and all the va...the bark this year did not run before rieties of putrid manure for the im

May) the tree is felled. Bark from provement of land, by consumir.g its' young trees, is in quality much fu- produce, and by giving employment perior to that which is pecled from to superfluous hands. As this fubject older ones; it forms more fap; and is, in some degree, connected with there is no such waste, as the hard and the inclosure of common fields, I beg dead part of an old tree is dressed, leave to fay a few words upon the which is not the case with the younger. fubje&t. In a wood, well planted with timber, About forty years ago, the southern underwood never comes to any size, and eastern parts of this county conand greater-lofles are sustained by the fifted moftly of open fields, which are coppice wood” being damaged, than now chiefly inclosed, at an experice, can be equalled by the advantage of on the average, of about 1455. per the growing timber. Woods that are acre, when frugally managed; which, full of timber, have seldom any tellows in many instances, was not the cafe'; remaining ; since they are oversha- and, from the best information which dowed, and find the greatest difficulty I can obtain, these inclosures have to fight their way through the branches produced ait improvement of near one and roots of the other trees; the ef. third of the rents, after allowing infect of shis is, that a good succeilion terett for those expences, and, in of, young oak seldom follows a fall of many instances, much more, upon a old timber. Timber, from stubs, is twenty-one year's lease. There are by some people preferred, to the, Itill about 50,000 acres of open

field" growth from feed; for when a good land, whici, in a few years, will proItub is cut, the succeeding shoot springs bably be all inclosed. Many of the up full three feet the first year, when , open fields, which have been inclosed, an acorn will hardly make its appear- are converted into pasture, particularly ance out of ground. And very fine in the southern and eastern parts of the oak timber, of two load to a tree, has country, which are let at high rents, been cut from stubs. Hedge-row (from 155. to 355. per acre) and on timber is much to be preferred for which a much improved breed of catmoulding, and the forest oak for the and sheep are kept and fartened. plank and thick fuff, from four to ten If the increafed produce of these ininches in thickness.

closures, and of those in the nighbour

ing counties, be taken into consideraWARWICKSHIRE. tior, and also the advanced price of By Mr. Wedge.

butcher's meat, it seems to prove,

that either population or luxury, or Manufactures.--Commerce and ma- perhaps both, must, on the whole, be nufactures have been carried on to a immensely increased. These lands,

being now grazed, want much fewer must depend on its situation, as to hands to manage them than they did roads, markets, and mnr; and in their former open fate. Upon all more especially those forts of manure, inclosures of open fields, the farms lime or marl, which, in the firit inhavé generally been made much larger, fiance, are most neceffary for bringfrom these causes, the hardy yeo- ing it into a speedy fate of producmanry of country villages have been tion, and on its being tythable or driven for employment into Birming- tythe-free. If, from ihcie circumham, Coventry, and other manufac- ftances, converting it to woodland turing towns, whose flourising trade should be found most proper, the nahas sometimes found them profitable ture of the soil will beit point out the employment.

kind of timber and underwood proper It may

be granted, that the fewer to be planted; but, however this may men and hurles any given tract of be, all the new hedges or fences, land requires for its proper manage- which are hereafter to be made, for ment, the greater will be its produce the fubdivifion of waste lands or open for market; and that the supernume- fields, ought, in my opinion, to be tary labourers, which must have been abundantly planted with all the diffed and employed in the cultivation of ferent forts of forest-trees, adapted to Imall open field, and other small'farras, the nature of the foil.

This I menåre employed, with much more ad- tion, because it has been much negvantage to the public, in the different lected in Warwickshire, and many manutactories of this county; but if other counties; an cpinion having trade in general should, for any great prevailed, that the injury done to length of time, continue bad, the hedge-rows, and to the adjoining board will be much better able to grounds, by such planting, is more judge of the consequences than my- than equal to the value of the timber self, and will also see how much the that can be fo raised. I have before peace and prosperity of this cour.try fupposed the average size of the new depends on its trade, in the train in inclosures that have been made in this which things now are ; and it seems county to be fifteen acres; if so, each fortunate, at this period, that the close, by fenciòg one side and one end, creation of a new kind of property has 550 yards in length, on which gives employment to so many thou- timber might have been planted with sands of the laborious poor, I mean the quick, &c. and if five yards and inland canals, by which, on the re a half be allowed for two trees to be turn of peace, commerce will na doubt thus planted (which is, I think, fufbe confiderably increased, the culti- ficient space for a few years, when vation of waite lands be promoted, properly pruned and trained) then and manufa&turing to:vns flourish. We each close of that fize would have 200 may then think ourselves happy, that trees growing on its fences for some Birmingham and Coventry are within years, which might be profitably rethis district; and, on the whole, find duced by taking out the underlings, advantageous employment for an im- so as to leave near ico trees for timmensely increased population. ber, which, in some instances, per

Wojte Lands. The waste lands in haps many, would in 100 years or this county, including the roads, I leis, be worth the fee fimple of the have estimated at 120,470 acres ; land they surround, without much, if and, like all other lands, the rit step any, injury to the occupiers; be. to be taken for their improvement is cause, in closes of that fize, their d-aining, where necesiary. If that is shelter and protection from cold winds, effectually done, or if naturally dry, &c. may probably be equal to every · the propriety of its future use, for the damage done by their growth. From purposes of agriculture or planting, these, and other confiderations, it may


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