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1783 it was ceded to the United States, leadership, and he followed his army back and it formed a part of the Northwest to Fort Harrison, where they arrived Oct. Territory. The country conquered by 25. This march of 80 or 90 miles into the General Clarke, in 1778–79, the Virginia Indian country had greatly alarmed the Assembly erected into a county, which Indians, and so did some good. Towards they called Illinois. It embraced all ter- the same region aimed at by General Hop
kins another expedition, under Colonel Russell, composed of two small companies
of United States regulars, with a small STATE
body of mounted militia under Gov. Ninian Edwards (who assumed the chief command), in all 400 men, penetrated deeply into the Indian country, but, hearing nothing of Hopkins, did not venture to attempt much. They fell suddenly upon the principal Kickapoo towns, 20 miles from Lake Peoria, drove the Indians into a swamp, through which they pursued them, sometimes waist-deep in mud, and made them fly in terror across the Illinois River. Some of the pursuers passed over, and brought back canoes with dead Indians in them. Probably fifty had perished. The expedition returned, after an absence of eighteen days, with eighty horses and the
dried scalps of several persons who had ritory north of the Ohio claimed as within been killed by the savages, as trophies. the limits of Virginia, and ordered 500 General Hopkins discharged the mutimen to be raised for its defence. In 1809, neers and organized another expedition of when the present boundaries of Indiana 1,250 men, composed chiefly of foot-solwere defined, Illinois included Wisconsin diers. Its object was the destruction of and a part of Minnesota, and in 1810 con- Prophetstown. The troops were composed tained more than 12,000 inhabitants. of Kentucky militia, some regulars under
On Oct. 14, 1812, Gen. Samuel Hopkins, Capt. Zachary Taylor, a company of ranwith 2,000 mounted Kentucky riflemen, gers, and a company of scouts and spies. crossed the Wabash on an expedition They rendezvoused at Vincennes, and marchagainst the Kickapoo and Peoria Indian ed up the Wabash Valley to Fort Harrison, villages, in the Illinois country, the former Nov. 5, 1812. They did not reach the 80 miles from his starting-place, the latter vicinity of Prophetstown until the 19th. 120 miles. They traversed magnificent Then a detachment fell upon and burned prairies covered with tall grass. The army a Winnebago town of forty houses, 4 was a free-and-easy, undisciplined mob, miles below Prophetstown. The latter and that chafed under restraint. Discontent, a large Kickapoo village near it were also seen at the beginning, soon assumed the laid in ashes. The village contained 160 forms of complaint and murmuring. huts, with all the winter provisions of Finally, when halting on the fourth day's corn and beans, which were totally de. march, a major rode up to the general and stroyed. On the 21st a part of the expeinsolently ordered him to march the troops dition fell into an Indian ambush and lost back to Fort Harrison. Very soon after eighteen men, killed, wounded, and misswards the army was scarcely saved from ing. So destitute were the troops, espeperishing in the burning grass of a prai- cially the Kentuckians, who were clad in rie, supposed to have been set on fire by only the remnants of their summer cloththe Indians. The troops would march no ing, that the expedition returned without farther. Hopkins called for 500 volun- attempting anything more. They suffered teers to follow him into Illinois. Not one dreadfully on their return march. responded. They would not submit to his Among the prominent events of the War
1863 to 1865 1865 1871
of 1812-15 in that region was the massacre UNITED STATES SENATORS-Continued. at CHICAGO (q. v.). After that war the pop
No. of Congress. ulation rapidly increased, and on Dec. 3,
Richard M. Young
25th to 27th 1837 to 1843 1818, Illinois, with its present limits, was Samuel Me Roberts.
1841 1843 admitted into the Union as a State. The Sidney Breese...
29th to 31st 1843 1849
Janes semple. census of 1820 showed a population of Stephen A. Douglas. 29th to 37th 1847 1161 more than 55,000. THE BLACK HAWK James Shields..
** 33d 1819 1855
341h " 420 Lyman Trumbull.
1803 1871 War (q. v.) occurred in Illinois in 1832. Orville H. Browning.
1861 There the Mormons established themselves William A. Richardson.. 37th to 391b
39th " 420 in 1840, at Nauvoo (see MORMONS); their
John A. Logan..
* 1877 founder was slain by a mob at Carthage, Richard J. Oglesby
* 46th David Davis.
45th * 47th 1877
1883 in 1844, and soon afterwards a general
John A. Logan.
46th "6 49th 1879 1886 exodus of this people occurred. A new Shelby M. Cullum.
Charles B. Farwell.
50th 66 61st 18-7
* 1891 State constitution was framed in 1847,
Jobu M. Palmer.
16 1897 and in July, 1870, the present constitu• William E. Mason. 55th * 68th 1897 tion was adopted. The Illinois Central Railroad, completed in 1856, has been a Illinois Indians, a family of the source of great material prosperity for Algonquian nation that comprised several the State. During the Civil War Illinois clans-Peorias, Moingwenas, Kaskaskias, furnished to the national government (to Tamaroas, and Cahokias. At a very early Dec. 1, 1861) 197,364 troops.
period they drove a Dakota tribe, whom In 1899 the equalized valuations of they called the Arkansas, to the country taxable property aggregated $953,099,574; on the southern Mississippi. These were and in 1900 the entire bonded debt con- the Quapaws. In 1640 they almost exsisted of $18,500 in bonds, which had terminated the Winnebagoes; and soon ceased to draw interest and never been afterwards they waged war with the Iropresented for payment. The population quois and Sioux. Their domain was bein 1890 was 3,826,351; in 1900, 4,821,550. tween Lakes Michigan and Superior and See UNITED STATES, ILLINOIS, vol. ix.
the Mississippi River. Marquette found TERRITORIAL GOVERNOR.
some of them (the Peorias and MoingweNinian Edwards........commissioned .... April 24, 1809 nas) near Des Moines, west of the MisSTATE GOVERNORS.
sissippi, in 1672; also the Peorias and Shadrach Bond........assumes office.
1818 Kaskaskias on the Illinois River. The Edward Coles.
1832 Tamaroas and Cahokias were on the MisMinian Edwards.. John Reynolds.
1830 sissippi. The Jesuits found the chief IlWilliam L. D. Ewing...acting
1834 linois town consisting of 8,000 people, in Joseph Duncan.. Thomas Carlin..
1838 nearly 400 large cabins, covered with Thomas Ford...
water-proof mats, with, generally, four Augustus C. French. Joel A. Malteson.
1853 fires to a cabin. In 1679 they were badly William H. Bissell.. John Wood...
defeated by the Iroquois, losing about ..acting
March 18, 1860 Richard Yates
assumes office. January, 1861 1,300, of whom 900 were prisoners: and Richard J. Oglesby
1865 John M. Palmer.
they retaliated by assisting the French, Richard J. Oglesby.
1873 under De la Barré and De Nonville, Job. 1. Beveridge.. ..acting... March 4,
The Ilinois Shelby M. Cullom...... assumes office. .. January, 1877 against the Five Nations. John M. Hamilton.....acting.
Feb. 7. 1883 were converted to Christianity by Father Richard J. Oglesby.
Marquette and other missionaries, and Joseph W. Fifer.
1889 John P. Altgeld.
1893 in 1700 Chicago, their great chief, visited John R. Tanner..
1897 France, where he was much caressed. His Richard Yates
son, of the same name, maintained great UNITED STATES SEVATORS.
influence in the tribe until his death, in No. of Congress
1754. When Detroit was besieged by the Winian Edwards..
1.5th to 1816 1818 to 1824 Foxes, in 1712, the Illinois went to its Jesse B. Thomas.
15th 19th 1818 1826 John McLean.
18th" 20th 1824 1830 relief, and in the war that followed they Elias Kent Kane.
15:35 suffered severely. Some of them were David J. Baker John M. Robinson.
21st to 27th 1831 to 1841 with the French at Fort Duquesne; but William L. D. Ewing.
they refused to join Pontiac in his con
spiracy. With the Miamis, they favored casualties. Iloilo at the time of the bom. the English in the war of the Revolution, bardment was the seat of the so-called and joined in the treaty at Greenville in government of the Visayan federation. 1795. By the provision of treaties they Ilpendam, JAN JANSEN VAN, merchant; ceded their lands, and a greater portion of appointed custom - house officer on the them went to a count west of the Mis- Delaware, and put in command of Fort sissippi, within the present limits of Kan- Nassau in 1640 by the Dutch governor sas, where they remained until 1867, when of New York. He tried to keep the Eng. they were removed to a reservation of 72,- lish colony from trading on the Delaware, 000 acres southwest of the Quapaws. In and his action in burning trading-houses 1872 the whole Illinois nation had dwin- and taking the traders prisoner involved dled to forty souls. This tribe, combined the governor of New York in difficulty with the Weas and Piankeshaws, num- with the government of New Haven. As bered only 160 in all.
the result, Ilpendam resigned, but conIloilo, the principal city and capital tinued to trade with the Indians. He of the island of Panay, and one of the died at Marcus Hook, Pa., in 1685. three ports of entry in the Philippine Imlay, GILBERT, author; born in New group opened to commerce in 1899. It is Jersey in 1750; served throughout the situated 225 miles south of Manila, at Revolutionary War; was the author of the southeastern extremity of Panay, and A Topographical Description of the Westis built on low, marshy ground, the whole ern Territory of North America; The Emiof which during a part of the spring is grants, or the History of an Exiled covered with water. The population in Family. 1900 was estimated at over 10,000. On Immigration. When the French doDec. 25, 1898, after General Rios, who minion in America was ended, the causes held the town with 800 Spanish troops, for war dismissed thereby, and the Indian heard that the Philippine Islands were to tribes on the frontiers were quieted, emibe ceded to the United States, instead of gration began to spread westward in New awaiting the arrival of the American England, and also from the middle coloforces, then on the way to take possession nies over the mountains westward. Many of the city, he turned it over to Vincente went from the other colonies into South Guies, the alcade. On the following day Carolina, where immigration was encourthat official surrendered it to 3,000 Fili- aged, because the white people were pino insurgents. When Gen. M. P. Mil- alarmed by the preponderance of the slave ler, of the American army, reached the bay population. Bounties were offered to imon which the city is situated he found migrants, and many Irish and Germans General Lopez with 5,000 Filipinos in settled in the upper districts of that provpossession. The Filipinos would not sur- ince. Enriched by the labor of numerous render without instructions from Agui- slaves, South Carolina was regarded as the naldo, and General Miller made prepara- wealthiest of the colonies. Settlers also tions to take forcible possession, but on a passed into the new province of east Florpetition from the European residents no ida. A body of emigrants from the Roahostile move was made until Feb. 11, 1899, noke settled in west Florida, about Baton when the American commander demanded Rouge; and some Canadians went into the surrender of the city to the authority Louisiana, for they were unwilling to of the United States. After it became evi- live under English rule. A colony of dent that the insurgent-officer in command Greeks from the shores of the Mediterwould not peaceably accede to this de- ranean settled at what is still known as mand, the United States naval vessels the inlet of New Smyrna, in Florida. And Petrel and Baltimore opened fire upon the while these movements were going on city, which was soon evacuated by the in- there were evidences of a rapid advance surgents after being fired. The American in wealth and civilization in the older troops quickly landed and extinguished communities. At that time the population the flames, but not before considerable and production of Maryland, Virginia, damage had been done. During the en- and South Carolina had unprecedented ingagement the Americans suffered crease, and it was called their golden age.
Commerce rapidly became more diffused. declaration in its platform: “The imBoston, which almost engrossed trade in portation of Japanese and other laborers navigation, now began to find rivals in under contract to serve monopolistie corNew York, Baltimore, Norfolk, Charleston, porations is a notorious and flagrant vioand little seaports on the New England lation of the immigration laws. We decoasts; and its progress, which had been mand that the federal government shall arrested by these causes twenty-five years take cognizance of this menacing evil and before, stood still twenty-five years longer. repress it under existing laws. We fur.
The leading political parties in recent ther pledge ourselves to strive for the years have made almost identical declara- enactment of more stringent laws for the tions in their national platforms. At the exclusion of Mongolian and Malayan imbeginning of the campaign of 1896 the migration ;” and the Silver Republican Democratic National Convention, which party declared: “We are opposed to the nominated Mr. Bryan, ignored the sub- importation of Asiatic laborers in com. jeet; but the Free-Silver wing of the petition with American labor, and favor a party, in convention in Chicago, declared: more rigid enforcement of the laws re
We hold that the most efficient way of lating thereto.” protecting American labor is to prevent Immigration Statistics. — During the the importation of foreign pauper labor period 1789–1820, when no thorough overto compete with it in the home market, sight was exercised, it is estimated that and that the value of the home market to the number of immigrants into the United our American farmers and artisans is States aggregated 250,000; and during greatly reduced by a vicious monetary the period 1820–1900 the aggregate was system which depresses the prices of their 19,765,155. The nationality of immi. products below the cost of production, grants in the fiscal year ending June 30, and thus deprives them of the means of 1900, was as follows: Austria-Hungary, purchasing the products of our home 114,847; German Empire, 18,507; Italy, manufactories; and as labor creates the including Sicily and Sardinia, 100.135 ; wealth of the country, we demand the pas- Norway, 9,575; Sweden, 18,650; Rumasage of such laws as may be necessary to nia, 6,459; Russian Empire and Finland, protect it in all its rights;” and the Re- 90,787; England, 9,951; Ireland, 35,730; publican National Convention declared: Scotland, 1,792 ; Wales, 764; Japan, “For the protection of the quality of our 12,635; Turkey in Asia, 3,962; West American citizenship, and of the wages of Indies, 4,656; all other countries, 20,122; our workingmen against the fatal com- total, 448,572. petition of low-priced labor, we demand
High-water mark was reached in 1882, that the immigration laws be thoroughly when the immigrants numbered 788,992. enforced, and so extended as to exclude In 1892 the steady decline was checked, from entrance to the United States those with a total of 623,084. The lowest who can neither read nor write.” In the number of arrivals in the period of 1867– campaign of 1900 the Democratic Na- 1900 was 141,857 in 1877, and in the tional Convention called for the strict en- period 1880–1900, 229,299 in 1898. forcement of the Chinese exclusion act
Immigration Act of 1891.—This measand its application to the same elasses of ure, “in amendment of the various acts all Asiatic races; the Republican Na- relative to immigration and the importational Convention pronounced: “In the tion of aliens under contract or agreefurther interest of American workmen we ment to perform labor,” was introduced favor a more effective restriction of the in the House by Mr. Owen, of Indiana, immigration of cheap labor from foreign and referred to the committee on immi. lands, the extension of opportunities of gration and naturalization.
It was education for working children, the rais- ported back, diseussed, and amended, and ing of the age limit for child labor, the passed the House Feb. 25, 1891, as fol. protection of free labor as against con- lows: tract convict labor, and an effective sys “ Be it enacted, etc., that the followtem of labor insurance;” the People's ing classes of aliens shall be excluded party (Fusion wing) inserted this from admission into the United States,
in accordance with the existing acts regu. “ Sec. 4. That no steamship or translating immigration, other than those con- portation company or owners of vessels cerning Chinese laborers: All idiots, in- shall, directly, or through agents, either sane persons, paupers or persons likely by writing, printing, or oral representato become a public charge, persons suffer- tions, solicit, invite, or encourage the iming from
loathsome or dangerous con- migration of any alien into the United tagious disease, persons who have been States except by ordinary commercial convicted of a felony or other infamous letters, circulars, advertisements, or oral crime or misdemeanor involving moral representations, stating the sailings of turpitude, polygamists, and also any per- their vessels and the terms and facilities son whose ticket or passage is paid for of transportation therein; and for a viowith money of another or who is assisted lation of this provision any such steamby others to come, unless it is affirma- ship or transportation company, and any tively and satisfactorily shown on special such owners of vessels, and the agents by inquiry that such person does not belong them employed, shall be subjected to the to one of the foregoing excluded classes, penalties imposed by the third section of or to the class of contract laborers ex- said act of Feb. 26, 1885, for violations cluded by the act of Feb. 26, 1885. But of the provisions of the first section of this section shall not be held to exclude said act. persons living in the United States from “ Sec. 5. That section 5 of said act of sending for a relative or friend who is Feb. 26, 1885, shall be, and hereby is, not of the excluded classes, under such amended by adding to the second proviso regulations as the Secretary of the Treas. in said section the words 'nor to minisury may prescribe; Provided, that noth- ters of any religious denomination, nor ing in this act shall be construed to persons belonging to any recognized proapply to exclude persons convicted of a fession, nor professors for colleges and political offence, notwithstanding said po- seminaries, and by excluding from the litical offence may be nated as a second proviso of said section the words ' felony, crime, infamous crime or mis. or any relative or personal friend.' demeanor involving moral turpitude' by “ Sec. 6. That any person who shall the laws of the land whence he came or bring into or land in the United States by the court convicting.
by vessel or otherwise, or who shall aid “ Sec. 2. That no suit or proceeding for to bring into or land in the United violations of said act of Feb. 26, 1885, States by vessel or otherwise, any alien prohibiting the importation and migra- not lawfully entitled to enter the United tion of foreigners under contract or agree. States, shall be deemed guilty of a mis. ment to perform labor, shall be settled, demeanor, and shall, on conviction, be compromised, or discontinued without the punished by a fine not exceeding $1,000, consent of the court entered of record or by imprisonment for a term not with reasons therefor.
ceeding one year, or by both such fine and “ Sec. 3. That it shall be deemed a vio- imprisonment. lation of said act of Feb. 26, 1885, to “ Sec. 7. That the office of superintend. assist or encourage the importation or mi- ent of immigration is hereby created and gration of any alien by promise of em- established, and the President, by and ployment through advertisements printed with the advice and consent of the Senand published in any foreign country; ate, is authorized and directed to appoint and any alien coming to this country in such officer, whose salary shall be $4,000 consequence of such an advertisement per annum, payable monthly. The supershall be treated as coming under a con- intendent of immigration shall be an tract as contemplated by such act; and officer in the Treasury Department, under the penalties by said act imposed shall be the control and supervision of the Secre. applicable in such a case; Provided, this tary of the Treasury, to whom he shall section shall not apply to States, and im- make annual reports in writing of the migration bureaus of States, advertising transactions of his office, together with such the inducements they offer for immigra- special reports, in writing, as the Secre. tion to such States.
tary of the Treasury shall require. The