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riously and deeply impressed on our minds, led each state in the Convention to be less rigid on points of inferior magnitude, than might have been otherwise expected ; and thus the Constitution, which we now present, is the result of a spirit of amity, and of that mutual deference and concession, which the peculiarity of our political situ. ation rendered indispensible.
That it will meet the full and entire approbation of every state is not, perhaps, to be expected ; but each will doubtless consider, that, had her interest alone been consulted, the consequences might have been particularly disagreeable or injurious to others ; that it is liable to as few exceptions as could reasonably have been expected, we hope and believe ; that it may promote the lasting welfare of that country so dear to us all, and secure her freedom and happiness, is our most ardent wish.
. With great respect,
. And humble servants,
By the unanimous order of the Congention,
His Excellency the President of Congress.
THE UNITED STATES IN CONGRESS ASSEMBLED.
Friday, September 28th, 1787..
Present-New-Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut,
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina and Georgia, and from Maryland, Mr. Ross.
Congress having received the report of the Convention lately assembled in Philadelphia.
THAT the said report, with the resolutions and letter
1 accompanying the same, be transmitted to the several legislatures, in order to be submitted to a convention of Delegates, chosen in each state by the people thereof, in conformity to the resolves of the Convention, made and provided in that case.
CHARLEŞ THOMPSON, Secretary.
CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES,
Begun and held at the city of New York, on Wednesday,
the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine.
The Conventions of a number of the states having at the time of their adopting the Constitution expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction, or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and , restrictive clauses should be added : And as extending the ground of public confidence in the government will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution
D ESOLVED, by the Senate and Fiouse of Representa
tives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two-thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following articles be proposed to the legislatures of the several states, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all or any of which Articles, when ratified by three-fourths of the said legislatures, to be valid, to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution, viz.
ARTICLES, in addition to, and amendment of, the CONSTI
TUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, proposed by CONGRESS, and ratified by the legislatures of the several states, pursuant to the fifth article of the original Constitution.
Article the First. of represen- AFTER the first enumeration required by the first artation,
Il ticle of the Constitution, there shall be one representative for every thirty thousand, until the number shall amount to one hundred, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall be not less than one hundred representatives, nor less than one representative for every forty thousand persons, until the number of representatives shall amount to two hundred ; after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall not be less than two hundred representatives, nor more
than one representative for every fifty thousand persons. Of the com
Article the Second. pensation of No law varying the compensation for the services of the members of Senators and Representatives shall take effect, until an Congress. election of Representatives shall have intervened.
Article the Third. Of the
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment rights of conscience,
ce of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or freedom of abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press ; or the the prefs, right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition &6
the government for a redress of grievances.
Article the Fourth. A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of the right of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear to
hear to bear arms shall not be infringed.
Article the Fifth. No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any in Troope.
Of quarter house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Article the Sixth. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects, against unreasonable searches
sto be secure and seizures, shall not be violated ; and no warrants shall from issue, but upon probable cause supported by oath or affir- searches, mation, and particularly describing the place to be search- &c. ed, and the persons or things to be seized.
Article the Seventh. No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or other- of indictvise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indici- ments,pument of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or nishments; naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in S. time of war or public danger : Nor shall any person be sub. ject, for the same ofence, to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, berty or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
Article the Eighth. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of Of trial in
criminal cas the state and district wherein the crime shall have been
"ses, and the committed, which district shall have been previously as- rights of a certained by law; and to be informed of the nature and defendant. cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with the witnesses against him ; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.
Article the Ninth. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy Of trial in shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall Civil be preserved ; and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the united states, than according to the rules of the common law.
Article the Tenth. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines o imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Article the Eleventh, The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights, ofriobre skall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained referved. by the people.
Article the twelfth.
FREDERICK A. MUHLENBERG,
Speaker of the House of Representatives.
JOHN ADAMS, Vice President of the
United States, and President of the Senate. Attest.
Clerk of the House of Representatives.
Secretary of the Senate.
Nore. The ten last articles of amendments have been adopted
by three-fourths of the legislatures of the several states in the union, and are become a part of the Constitution of the United States. The two first articles have not been adopted.
THIRD CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES.
At the second session, begun and held at the city of Philo
delphia, in the state of Pennsylvania, on Monday, the second of December, one thousand scven hundred and
ninety-three. D ESOLVED, by the Senate and House of Representatives
Il of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two-thirds of both Houses concurring, That the following Article be proposed to the legislatures of the several states, as an amendment to the Constitution of the United States ; which, when ratified by three-fourths of the said legislatures, shall be valid, as part of the said Constitution, viz.
The Judicial Power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the united states by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.
FREDERICK A. MCHLENBERG,
Speaker of the House of Representatives. JOIN ADAMS, Vice President of the
United States, end President of the Senate. Attest.
youn Becker, Clerk of the House of Representatives, SAMUEL A. Oris, Secretary of the Sinate.
Nore. This Resolution was ratified by three-fourths of the
States. See Journals of Congress, January 8th, and February 5th, 1798.
Lable of the Acts abridged.
minated the department of war. 32 An ACT to provide for the government of the territory north
west of the river Ohio. 33 An ACT for the establishment and support of light-houses,
beacons, buoys and public piers. 36 An ACT to establish the treasury department. 40 An ACT for establishing the salaries of the exceutive offi
cers of government, with their assistants and clerks. 41. An ACT to provide for the safe keeping of the acts, records
and seal of the united states, and for other purposes. 15 An ACT for allowing certain compensation to the judges of the
supreme and other courts, and to the attorney-general of
the united states, 47 An ACT to establish the judicial courts of the united states. 100 An ACT for the punishment of certain crimes against the
united states. 115 An ACT to prescribe the mode in which the public acts,
records and judicial proceedings, in each state, shall be
authenticated so as to take effect in every other state. 118 An ACT for the encouragement of learning, by securing the
copies of maps, charts and books, to the authors and pro
prietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned. 123 An ACT for giving effect to an act, entitied, “ An act to
esiablish the judicial courts of the united states,” withia
the state of North-Carolina. 125 An ACT supplemental to the act for establishing the sala
ries of the executive officers of government, with their
assistants and clerks. 126 An ACT for giving effect to an act, entitled, “ An act to
establish the judicial courts of the united states," within
the state of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. 13! An ACT to authorize the purchase of a tract of land for the
use of the united states. 132 An ACT for establishing the temporary and permanent seat
of the government of the united states. 134 An ACT for the government and regulation of seamen in
the merchants service. 144 An ACT imposing duties on the tonnage of ships or vessels. 147 An ACT making provision for the debt of the united states. 244 An ACT to provide more effeclually for the settlement of
the accounts between the urited states and the individual statcs.