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Declaration of Independence.
Fac-simile) of the vziginal document in the hand-writing of Thomas Jefferson.

[Copied by permission from the MS. in the Department of State, at Washington.] a Diclaration by the Representatives of the UMTED STATES OF AMERICA, in General Congressacvermbled.

. When in the course of human wents A becomes necessary for the people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and't is olie ine pole seems

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weparate and equal ne among the powers of the earth the axullastspectant station to which the laws of nature & of nature s god entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to be the reparation.

We hold there huetho to be dry LowcrammidestShat all men are created equal, Sköndaporedront, that they equationem internetowy do moto Jen heren Binalienabling among he time to com life liberty, 8. The pursuit of happiness', that to secure these partiego. vernments are instituted among men, deriving their gust powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government Sable becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, & to institute new government, laying it's foundation on such principles & organising it's powers in such form, as to them shell veem most likely to effect their safety & happiness. predence indeed wil dictate that governmento long established whould not be changed for light transient causes: and accordingly all expenence hath shewn that mankend are more disposed to suffer while wals are vafferable, than to right themselves ly abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed but


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when a long train of abuses & usurpations (begun at adistinguished period & pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a design to radjad reduce

ne day to do the Deady wit is their right, his their duty, to throw of such government & to provide new guards for thar future recunity, such has been the patient sufferance of these colonces, & such is now the necessity which constrains them to leaping their former systems of government. the history of being present matt, wa history oleremitting injuries and resurpations, [among which can

be try to contra. dict the uniform tenor of the rest, att of others have]in direct object the cohablishment of an absolute Tyranny over these states to prove this, let factele submitted to a candid world for the truth of which we pledge a faith yet unsullied by falsehood] he has refused his advent to laws the most wholesome and necessary for the prib

- lic good: he has forbidden his governors to prasslaws of inmediate & pressing importance

unless vus pended in their operation till his assent should be detained,

and whenuo vespended, he has neglected attedy to attend to them. he has refused to pass other lows for the acimmodation large districte Apeople

unless those people would relinquish the right of repreventation, a right

inestimable to them, & formidable to tyrants only: he has called together legiilahić bodies at places'unuwal, uncomfortable, & distant from

the depository of their public records, for the vole purpose of fatiguing them into compliana

with his measures; he has dissolved Representative houses repeatedly & continually for opposing with manly firmnefs his invasions on the night the people:

, he has refused for a long upang turmee, to cause others to be clected

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time after such


Wherely the legislative power, incapable dj annihilation, have returned to the people, at large for their exercise, the state remaining in the meantime

exposed to all the dangers of invasion from withorit & conureksino within: e has endeavored to prevent the population these states; for that purpose

distracting the laws for naturalization of foreigners; refusing to pass thers to encourage their migrations hither, & raising the conditions of new ap.

-propriationer og lands: Es has emegtered the administration of justice totally to cease in some of these

estas refusing his assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers: e has made [orus) judges dependant on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices,

and amorincheur salaries e haberected a multitude of new offices by a self-assumed power ]Hvent his ther swarma of Officers to harass our people beat out their substance:

Legislatives se has kept among us in times of peacejutanding armied&whepoof war

without the consent of our he has affected to render the military, independent q&superior to the civil prover. has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitu

tions and unacknoleged by our laws; giving his asunt to their pretended costo
Regislation, for quartering large bodies Jarmid troops among us, .
for protecting them by a mock-trial from punishment for any murdy

they should commit on the inhabitants of these states;
For cutting of four trade with all parts of the world;
For imposing taxes on us without our consent;
for depriving us of the benefits of trial by juny;

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ansporting us beyond veas ?

zeleneled ottences: . for abolishing the free vrystem of English laws in a meishing slanine its boundanes, zo astorender ut at once anclample & fitinstrument for introducing the vanne abe nun

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cotallickory therein an arbitrary govomment

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for taking away our charters, faltering fundamentally the forms of our governamente, for suspondery our own legislatives to declaring themselves invested with power to

legislate for us in all cases whatsoever is, he has abdicated government here, [withdraussy his governors, & declaring us out

of his allegiance & prosection ] he has plundered our reas, ravaged our courts, burnt our towns & distroyed the - lives of our people

1. Scotch and other he is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to compleat the works of death desolation & tyranny, already begun with circumstances

veare mandler o melhor me alone odobregun wrth curcumstances hoben hemmotte de perfil comerything the heart fa civilized nation. . he homemade amores con aning on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless bahan

savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undishnquished destriction of

all ages, vezes, & conditions (Pexistence.] 'he has incited treasonable insurrections of our fellow citizens with the Aura allegamento e forteifure En sampination of grama preoperties Sheer you to the tentang he has nothing creatizama human mature storedniolating its most va

-credinghts of life, Slivity in the persmo fa distant people who never of

fended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery mi another hemio sphere, or to incur miserable death in their hamaportation thither, this pisatical warfare the opprobrum of infidelepowers, is the warfare of the Christian king of Great Britain determined to keepopena market where MEN hould be bought & shol he has prochbehed his negative u determining to be the man med starter hendette for suppressing query legislative attempt to prohibit or to reshain this execrable commerce and that this assemblage of horsons might want no fact

allurements of force ha constrained others fachang e

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I distinguished ove, he is now exciting those very people to rise in arma amongus, and to purchase that liverty of which he has deprived them, by murdering the people upon whom he also blinded them: thus payne

3 former crimes committed against the liberties fome people, with crimes which he urges them to commit against the lives of another ]

ganamer un imeny orazé of these oppressionó we have petitimed for redress in the most humble berinó our repeated petitionó have beenanowered by repeated injurüs. u mince wehrinse character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant is unfit to be the meter da' people.fwho mean to be free future ages will scarce believe that the hardiness thone man', advenhered within the short compasó'd twelve years onzuf, pe r pustakombength over a people foolered V fixev in principles I Stradas", freedom.]'

nor have we been wanting in attentions to our Borinsh brethren: we have warned them from time to time Pattempts by their legislature to extend a juris

diction over these over states. we have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration & settlement here, no one of which could warrant vouhange a pretension: that these were effecteô at the eopence fourown Wood & beasure, unasrisked by the wealth or the strength of Great Britain: that inconstiketing indeed our several forms of government, we had adopted one common king, thereby laying a foundation for perpetual leaque amity with them: but that submission to their varliament was no past four constitution, nor ever in idea if history, may le credited: anomenetappealed to their native justice & magnanimity Cao well as to the tics djour common kindred to disavow these usurpations which were likelyitolinsernyat on om oor spondence tommotion. they too have been deaf to the voice of justice & A consanguinety. when the reasons have been given them,ly the regular course of


& we have comured

hea nuntably

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