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be with all moderation and coolness on your
part, in the spirit of peace and mutual forbear-
ance. And, therefore, never converse upon this
or any other point with an angry man; passion
and heat blind the judgment: nor with a bigot,
who is determined for a scheme, and resolved to
open

his
eyes

to no further evidence. Whenever anger and bigotry appear in a conversation already begun, break it off; for you cannot proceed to any good purpose, and will be in danger of catching a spirit, which is quite contrary to the gospel. Hold the truth in love."*

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P. 296. –(1) Original sin is the subject of the ninth of the 39 Articles; and it is described in a very

confused manner, but in substance as follows:—“Original sin is the fault and corruption of the natare of every man, of the offspring of Adam;" "and in every person, born into this world, (infants) it deserveth God's wrath and damnation: and this infection doth remain, yea, in them that are regenerated.”

“ Article xiii. _Works done before the grace of Christ, and the inspiration of his spirit, are not pleasing to God; yea, rather, we doubt not but they have the nature of sin."

P. 297.—(2) “My dear children-Ye are of your father the devil; and the lusts of your father you will do. Your carnal mind is enmity against God; your heart is an habitation of devils; think how much of life you have already cast away in the practice of sin. O why thus grieve, thus break the heart

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of a kind, a divine Saviour! my dear child, let thy heart meditate terror; God is angry with you every day; his bow is bent, his arrows of wrath are pointed against thee; his creatures are every one ready to devour thee; gladly would angels sheath their flaming swords in thy bowels; with earnestness devils beg. Jehovah's permission to drag thee to Tophet; cursed art thou in thy gifts, in thy privileges, in thy labours, in thy food, in thy raiment, in thy basket, and in thy store. Hell from beneath is moved to meet thee at thy coming; damned angels, in cruel derision, stand ready to ask thee, ‘art thou also become like one of us?' your Saviour hath besought you; why tread on my bowels, and make me your stumbling block into deeper damnation.”--Catechism by John Brown, Minister, at Haddington.

Calvin holds, that infants are damned, for their own sins, in the womb.-Infantes quoque ipsi, dum suam secum damnationem a matris utero afferunt, non alieno, sed suo ipsorum vitio sunt obstricti.—Non enim natura nostra boni tantum inops & vacua est; sed malorum omnium adeo fertilis & fe. rax,'ut otiosa esse non possit—totum hominum non alind ex seipso esse quam concupiscentiam.-Calu. Inst. ii. 1. 8.

P. 301.—(3) "To say the plain truth, Christians, in general, seem not to be perfectly qualified for the undertaking (converting infidels;) nor will be so, till metaphysical and scholastic divinity is either discarded from the Christian sys, tem, or at least allowed not to be essential to Christianity, nor necessary to be received as a condition of salvation.”-Jortin on Ecclesiastical History, ii. 165.

See Rammohun Roy, to the same purpose, page 118.

P. 301.—(4) Some call this (the law given to Adam) a covenant of works; though it implies neither a covenant nor works: for no works are commanded: and one action only forbidden.-Milton's C. D.

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ROMANS v.-ll. We also joy in God, through our Lord Jesus Christ, by

whom we have now received the atonement.

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THERE is no question in theology of more importance, or involved in greater obscurity, than the object and efficacy of the death of Christ. We are all persuaded, that it took place for our benefit; that it is an event, in which we are deeply interested, and for which we owe a debt of gratitude to our blessed Lord, and his heavenly Father, that we can never discharge. This we are bound to keep constantly in mind, particularly in every act of worship, and most of all in the solemnity of his last supper. But to account for the manner of its operation, and whether it operates only in one, or in various modes, are subjects, that have given rise to a variety of opinions. In many questions of this obscure nature,

we have reason to think, that this knowledge is not essential. There are points, of which it is very desirable, perhaps necessary, that we should be thoroughly convinced; but, with respect to the particulars of which, we may safely remain ignorant; and in these cases, it is generally better to be content with our ignorance, than to make them the subject of fruitless and perplexing investigations, or contentious and uncharitable controversy.

The efficacy of the death of Christ is supposed by some, to consist only in example and testimony; an example of virtue and obedience, and a proof of sincerity. Some limit it to the com. munication of eternal life through the grace and benevolence of the Almighty; others extend it to the obtaining of this power of bestowing immortality by Christ, from love on his part to the human race. It is considered by many, as necessary to expiate the sins of the world, on the score of justice; and by not a few, as a sacrifice and satisfaction to the offended majesty of God, in order to appease the divine wrath, by the sufferings of an innocent victim, for the offences of the guilty.

A question has also been started, whether the death of Christ was an essential part of the scheme of salvation from the beginning; so that mankind could not have been redeemed without it; or whether it took place, in consequence of our Lord's coming into the world, and exposing himself to the malice of the Jews; so that he could not be saved from crucifixion without materially injuring the design and effect of his mission, though not altogether frustrating it. On the one hand, it appears by the prophecies, to have been, at least, foreseen and contemplated from the beginning; and in the Epistles there are strong expressions, intimating, that it was, in some sense, necessary for the remission of sin. On the other, it is remarkable, that the language of our Lord in prayer seems to imply, that his sufferings might be dispensed with, withont defeating the object, for which he came into the world. “ He fell on his face and prayed, saying, O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless, not as I will, but as thou wilt;" and "a second time, he prayed, saying, O my Father, if this cup may not pass from me, except I drink it, thy will be done.” Again, in Mark, “Abba, Father, all things are possible to thee: take

cup from me: nevertheless, not what I will, but what thou wilt;” and again“ he went away and prayed, and said the same words.". The same transaction is recorded by Luke, with this addition, “and there appeared an angel to bim from heaven, strengthening him; and being in an agony, he prayed more earnestly.” As no one can suppose, that he meant 'to abandon the design of his miniştry at the very close of it; these words would

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