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As showing the interest manifested by the foreign-born in this industry in acquiring citizenship, it will be noted that of the 143 males for whom information was obtained 28.7 per cent are fully naturalized, while an additional 25.9 per cent have declared their intention to become citizens. Of those races reporting in sufficient numbers to admit of comparison the positions of the North Italians and Hebrews, as regards those fully naturalized and those having first papers only, are opposed; the former report 43.2 per cent fully naturalized and an additional 16.2 per cent having first papers only, while the latter report 14.8 per cent fully naturalized and an additional 48.1 per cent who have declared their intention to become citizens of the United States. The South Italians, on the other hand, while showing a considerably smaller proportion than the North Italians, and even a larger proportion than the Hebrews, fully naturalized, show the proportion with first papers only to be extremely low as compared with that shown by the Hebrews and North Italians.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The following table shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of persons in the households studied, 6 years of age or over, who speak English: TABLE 76.Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and general

nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals,

however, are for all non-English-speaking races.)

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Of the total number of persons 6 years of age or over, 92 cent of the males and 70.9 per cent of the females speak English. The native-born of foreign father show 100 per cent of each sex speaking English. Every race specified shows a larger proportion of males than of females speaking English. The greatest difference between the sexes is among the Armenians, 90.9 per cent of the males speaking English and only 51.4 per cent of the females. The Poles show the most equal proportions of the two sexes speaking English, the difference in favor of the males being less than i per cent.

The following table shows, by sex and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees of non-English-speaking races who speak English:

Table 77.Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total,

however, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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The proportion of foreign-born employees who speak English is 79.5 per cent for males and 78 per cent for females. Of the different races, the Dutch, Germans, and French Canadians, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportions of males who speak English, and the North Italians and the South Italians have the smallest, while the Dutch, Russian Hebrews, and Germans, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportions of females so reported, and the North Italians and French Canadians have the smallest.

The progress of younger and older immigrants in acquiring an ability to speak English according to age at time of arrival in this country is considered in the table next submitted.

Table 78.Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by

age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, how

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

Per cent who speal

English, by age time of coming to United States.

Number reporting complete

data.

Race of individual.

Under 14.

14 or over.

Armenian.
Hebrew
Italian, North.
Italian, South,
Polish..
Syrian...

Total..

92 176 160 196 90 77

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794

99.1

71.

Information was obtained in this industry for 794 foreign-born persons. Of those who were under 14 years of age at time of coming to the United States 99.1 per cent now speak English, as compared with 71.5 per cent of those who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming. Of those who were under 14 years of age at time of coming, each race, except the North and South Italians, reports 100 per cent who now speak English, while of those who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States the Hebrews, with 79.3 per cent, report a slightly larger proportion than do thé Syrians, South Italians, Poles, Armenians, and North Italians, in the order named.

The progress made by persons of non-English-speaking races in acquiring the ability to speak English after designated periods of residence in this country is set forth in the table following:

TABLE 79.---Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by

years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.)

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Of a total of 794 persons reporting complete data in the above table, 65.2 per cent of those in the United States under five years, 83.6 per cent of those with a period of residence of from five to nine years, and 89.5 per cent of those here ten years or over now speak English. The Hebrews show the largest and the North Italians the smallest proportion who speak English, as regards each period of residence. With the exception of the Hebrews, the proportion of each race speaking English increases with the length of residence.

4$296°—VOL 11-11

The following table shows the percentage of foreign-born employees now able to speak English, by age at time of coming to the United States:

TABLE 80.Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, age at time of

coming to the United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

(This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total,

however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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It appears from this table that in the case of each race, without exception, a considerably larger proportion of the persons who came to the United States as children than of those who were 14 years

of age or over are now able to speak English. The least difference appears among the Dutch males, and the greatest difference among the Polish females.

The following table shows the percentage of foreign-born employees who speak English, by years in the United States: TABLE 81.—Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, years in the

United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only

non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.)

MALE.

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From the preceding table it appears that 48.7 per cent of the males and 43.4 per cent of the females who have been in the United States under five years can speak English, as compared with 76.2 per cent of the males and 83 per cent of the females who have been here from five to nine years, and 91.2 per cent of the males and 91.7 per cent of the females who have been here ten years or over. Almost without exception the percentages increase with length of residence in the United States. All of the Russian Hebrews, both males and females, who have been in the United States ten years or over can speak English. On the whole, the North Italians exhibit the smallest percentages reported in the table.

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