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CHAPTER VII.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Ownership of homes-Status of children in the households studied-Citizenship

Ability to speak English-Text Tables 71 to 81 and General Tables 45 to 50).

OWNERSHIP OF HOMES.

Home ownership by families the heads of which are of foreign birth may be considered a strong indication of permanent settlement, and the facts in this connection relative to the families whose heads are employed in the silk industry are set forth in the following table, according to general nativity and race of head of family:

TABLE 71.— Number and per cent of families owning home, by general nativity and race

of head of family.

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The above table shows that only 8.6 per cent of the 278 families studied in this industry own homes—the foreign-born reporting 7.4 per cent as compared with 23.8 per cent of the native-born of native father. Among the foreign-born no Hebrews or Poles, and only a small proportion of Syrians, own homes. On the other hand, the North Italians report 16.1 per cent owning homes, a proportion largely in excess of that shown by either the Armenians or the South

Italians.

STATUS OF CHILDREN IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The status of children in the households studied may be seen in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of children 6 and under 16 years of age who were at home, at school, and at work:

TABLE 72.Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work,

by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more children reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Of the total number of children 6 and under 16 years of age 94.6 per cent are at school, 4.7 per cent at work, and 0.8 per cent at home. The foreign-born show a larger proportion at school than the nativeborn of foreign father. The latter, however, have 6 per cent at work as compared with 3.2 per cent of foreign-born. Each specified class has a greater proportion of male children at school than of female. The Hebrews, however, have a predominating proportion of female children at school. Female children of every class and race, the Hebrews excepted, are more commonly at work than are male children.

CITIZENSHIP.

As regards the interest in and the attainment of citizenship by the operatives of foreign birth the following table shows, by race, the present political condition of foreign-born male employees who had been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to this country:

Table 73.- Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in

the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.)

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From the data presented in the preceding table it appears that 61.3 per cent of the foreign-born male employees for whom information was secured are fully naturalized and 18.4 per cent have first papers only. Of the foreign-born races for which the percentages have been computed, the Germans, English, and North Italians, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportion of fully naturalized individuals and the Russian Hebrews have by far the largest proportion of individuals who have first papers only.

The tendency to acquire citizenship after designated periods of residence in this country is set forth in the following table, which shows the present political condition of foreign-born male employees according to the number of years in the United States: TABLE 74.- Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21 years

of age or over at time of coming to the United States, by years in the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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It appears from the above table that 16.6 per cent of the males who had been in the United States from five to nine years, as compared with 75.7 per cent of those who had been here ten years or over, are fully naturalized. Of those who had been here from five to nine years 40.2 per cent, as against 11.3 per cent of those who had been here ten years or over, have first papers only. Each race shows an increase in the proportion of fully naturalized individuals with added length of residence in the United States. This increase is particularly marked in the case of the North Italians. Upon the other hand, the proportion of individuals having first papers only is considerably smaller for individuals who had been in the United States ten years or over than for those having been here from five to nine

years. The table next presented shows, by race of individual, the present political condition of foreign-born måles in the households studied.

Table 75.Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United

States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)
[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.)

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