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The table next presented shows the range in the number of persons per sleeping room, according to general nativity and race of head of household:

TABLE 57.Persons per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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Of the total number of households, 72.4 per cent have 2 or more persons per sleeping room, 23.5 per cent have 3 or more, and 5.1 per cent have 4 or more. These conditions closely reflect the persons per sleeping room in the households of the foreign-born, all but 21 of the total number being of that class. In the greater proportion of the households of the native-born of native father there are less than 2 persons per sleeping room. However, each specified race of foreignborn most commonly has 2 or more persons per sleeping room, the proportions ranging from 88 per cent of the Poles to 64.3 per cent of the Armenians. The latter race and the North Italians have the smallest proportion of households having each specified number of persons per sleeping room; consequently, the North Italians and Armenians have the smallest average number of persons per sleeping room.

The effect of congestion within the households upon living arrangements may be seen

from the final table of this series, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the number and percentage of households regularly using all except each specified number of rooms for sleeping purposes.

Table 58.— Number and per cent of households regularly sleeping in all except each specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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The greater proportion of the total number of households regularly use all except 2 rooms to sleep in; 27.9 per cent sleep in all except 1 room. These figures closely reflect the conditions in the households of the foreign-born, since of the 272 households 251 are of that class.

CHAPTER VI.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS. Literacy-Conjugal condition-Visits abroad-Age classification of employees and

members of their households [Text Tables 59 to 70 and General Tables 35 to 44).

LITERACY.

As regards the literacy of silk goods manufacturing employees and members of their households, the following series of tabulations not only sets forth the degree of literacy which prevails among them at the present time, but also indicates the elements of progress evidenced by the foreign-born after their arrival in this country. The table first presented shows, by general nativity and race, the per cent of employees able to read and the percentage able to both read and write: Table 59.Per cent of employees who read and per cent who read and write, by sex and

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Native-born of native father,

White...
Native-born of foreign father,

by country of birth of
father:

Austria-Hungary
England...
Germany
Ireland
Italy
Netherlands
Russia.
Scotland..
Switzerland

Wales
Foreign-born, by race:

Canadian, French
Dutch..
English.
French
German
Hebrew, Russian.
Irish.
Italian, North
Italian, South
Polish
Scotch..

Grand total.....
Total native-born of foreign

father....
Total native-born.......
Total foreign-born..

The preceding table shows that of 12,776 employees reporting, 98.9 per cent can read and 98.4 per cent can read and write. The employees who are native whites born of native father show the highest percentage who can read and the highest percentage who can read and write, the employees who are native-born of foreign father and those who are of foreign birth following in the order named. Of the employees who are native-born of foreign father, those whose fathers were born in Wales, Switzerland, Scotland and the Netherlands show 100 per cent of both males and females able to read and write. Of the foreign-born employees the Scotch and English show 100 per

cent of both the males and females able to read and write. The South Italians show the greatest degree of illiteracy, only 85.6 per cent being able to read and write.

The table next presented shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of persons 10 years of age or over in the households studied who can read and the per cent who can both read and write:

TABLE 60.—Per cent of persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and

write, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

(This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Of 867 persons reporting complete data, the preceding table shows that 86.4 per cent read and write. A larger proportion of the males than of the females are literate. The entire proportion of the nativeborn, whether of native or of foreign father, both males and females, read and write, as compared with 92.4 per cent of the foreign-born males and 74.8 per cent of the foreign-born females. The proportion of foreign-born able to read is slightly larger than the proportion able to both read and write, as regards both males and females. Of the foreign-born races the North Italians and Poles show the entire proportion of males and 91 per cent and 86.1 per cent, respectively, of the females to have ability to both read and write, the South Italian showing the smallest proportion.

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